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Iv\m\mbn sXm½sâ IY tIÄ¡m³ t]mcptóm, apkncnkn-te¡v

Britishmalayali
\nJnð sI Fkv

aqómdpw Du«nbpw tXSn t]mIp-ó bpsI aebm-fnIÄ, Pò \mSnsâ Ncn{Xhpw \mÄ hgnIfpw HsI a¡Ä¡mbn ]dªp sImSp¡m³ IqSn _m[y-Øctñ. \nÀ`mKyhimð C¯cw kuIcy§Ä \ap¡v A[n-Ianñ. Fómð `mKyhimð Ct¸mÄ ss]XrI kwc£W ]²XnbpsS `mKambn \ap¡mbn apkncnkv k-I-e {]uVntbmsSbpw Im¯ncn-¡póp. Að]w Dñmkw thWsa¦nð IqsS sNdmbn _o¨pw kµÀin¡mw. a[y tIcf¯nð sImSp§ñqcn\v-- ASp¯mbn ØnXn sN¿póp FóXpw t\«-amWv.

Ncn{Xw ]ucmWnI Ime¯v, temIs¯ Gähpw henb hmWnPyXpdapJsaóv A\pam\n¡s¸Spó ØeamWv apkncnkv. 2500 sImñw ap³]v temIs¯ {]apJ hmWnPy tI{µambncpó apkncnkv, kpKÔhyRvP\§Ä apXð AaqeycXv\§Ä hsc {Ko¡pImÀ, tdmam¡mÀ XpS§nb {]apJ hmWnPy cmPy§fpambn hn\nabw sNbvXncpóp.

Hómw \qämïnse {]apJ hmWnPyXpdapJ tI{µambncpóp apkncnkv. Z£ntW´ybnð, tIcf¯nse sImSp§ñqcnt\mSv tNÀómWv apkncnkv \ne \nóncpóXv Fóv IcpXs¸Spóp. sImSp§ñqÀ `cn¨ncpó tNc ]mÞycmPm¡òmcp-sS ({InkvXphn\p ap³]v Aômw \qämïp apXð 12þmw \qämïnsâ Ahkm\w hsc sXt¡ C´ybnse Nne {]tZi§fnembn \ne\nóncpó km{amPyamWv tNc km{amPyw, Hcp ]pcmX\ Xangv cmPyamWv ]mÞy km{amPyw Ncn{XmXoXImew apXð 15þmw \qämïnsâ Ahkm\w hsc Xangv\mSv `cn¨ aqóv ]pcmX\ Xangv km{amPy§fnð HómWv ]mÞykm{amPyw (tNmf, tNc km{amPy§Ä BWv aäp cïpw). C´y³ D]`qJÞ¯nsâ sXt¡ ap\¼nð DÅ tImÀss¡ Fó XpdapJ \Kcw BØm\am¡nbmbncpóp ]mÞyòmÀ BZyw cmPyw `cn¨Xv. ]nóoSv AhÀ XeØm\w a[pcbnte¡v amän.) ImeL«¯nemWv apkncnkv {]_eamb hmWnPy tI{µambn cq]s¸SpóXv. 9mw \qämïnð s]cnbmÀ Xoc{]tZi¯v ØnXn sNbvXncpó 10 sshjvWht£{X§Ä A¡meL«¯nse ]mÞycmPm¡òmcpsS kzm[o\¯n\pÅ sXfnhmWv. ]ucmWnI Xangv IrXnIfnepw bqtdm]y³ kômcnIfpsS cN\Ifnepw apkncnkns\¡pdn¨v ]cmaÀiapïv. hn`Pns¨mgpIpI FóÀ°apÅ apkncn Fó Xangv hm¡nð \nómWv apkncnkv Fóv t]cv Dcp¯ncnªXv. A¡me¯v sImSp§ñqÀ `mK¯qsS HgpInbncpó s]cnbmÀ cïpimJIfmsbmgpInbXnð \nómWv Cu ]Zw e`n¨Xv Fóv IcpXs¸Spóp.

Z£ntWjybnse {]apJhmWnPy tI{µambncpó apkncnkv, CuPn]väpImÀ, {Ko¡p-ImÀ, ^n\ojy³kv, Ad_nIÄ (ba-\nIÄ) XpS§nb {]apJ hmWnPy \Kc§fpamsbñmw I¨hSw \S¯nbncpóp. IbäpaXn sN¿s¸«hbnð kpKÔhyRvP\§Ä (IpcpapfIv, Gew), acXIw, ap¯v-- XpS§nb AaqeycXv\§Ä, B\s¡m¼v, ssN\okv ]«v XpS§nbhsbñmw Dïmbncpóp. Aômw \qämïnð tdma³ XpdapJ§Ä £tbmòpJambXv apXemWv apkncnkv {]_eamIpóXv. 14þmw \qämïnð s]cnbmdnse {]fb¯nð apkncnkv \mamhtijambn FómWv Ncn{XtcJIÄ km£ys¸Sp¯póXv.
tIcf-¯nsâ k¼óamb hmWnPyNcn{X¯nte¡v shfn¨w hoipóXmWv t\mÀ¯v ]dhqÀ, ]«Ww, sImSp§ñqÀ {]tZi§fnð J\\w sNbvXXneqsS e`n¨ ]ucmWnI Ahinã§Ä. inemenJnX§Ä, ]ucmWnI \mWb§Ä, hkv{X§Ä, ImÀjnIb{´§Ä, Nn{X§Ä BteJ\w sNbvX hkv{X§Ä XpS§nbhsbñmw kao]{]tZi§fnse J\\¯neqsS e`n¡pIbpïmbn. apkncnkv \ne\nóncpóp Fóv IcpXs¸Spó {]tZi§sf ss]XrIkwc£W taJebmbn {]Jym]n¡pIbpïm-bn. FdWmIpfw Pnñbnse hS¡³ ]dhqÀ apXð XriqÀ Pnñbnse sImSp§ñqÀ hsc \oïp InS¡póXmWv apkncnkvþss]XrIkwc£Wta-J-e. FdWmIpfw Pnñbnð tNµawKew, NnämäpIc, hSt¡¡c, ]Ån¸pdw ]ômb¯pIfpw XriqÀ Pnñbnð FdnbmSv, aXneIw, {io\mcmbW]pcw shÅm§ñqÀ ]ômb¯pIfpw CXnð DÄs¸Spóp.

C´ybnse Xsó Gähpw {]mNo\amb hmWnPyXpdapJambncpóp apkncnkv. tdmam¡mÀ, bh\¡mÀ XpS§nbhÀ BZyambn sX¡³ Gjy³ `qJÞhpambn hmWnPy_Ôw Øm]n¨Xv apkncnkpambn«mWv Fóv IcpXs¸Spóp. hnb-ó ayqknb¯nð kq£n¨ncn¡pó Hcp Npcpfnð (Papyrus) AeI-vkm{µnbbpw apkncnkpw X½nð \S¯nbncpó hmWnPy IcmdpIfpsS tcJIÄ ImWmw. 2500hÀj§Ä¡p ap³]v \ne\nóncpó AXohk¼óamb Hcp XpdapJ kwk-vImc¯nsâ Ahtijn¸mWv apkncnkv.

]ucmWnI Xangv kwLw IrXnIfnð hmWnPyXpdapJambncpó apkncnsb¡pdn¨v \nch[n ]cmaÀi§fpïv. kwLw ImeL«¯nse {]apJ Xangv IrXnbmb "AI\ópdp' (Aka-Nannuru) hnð s]cnbmÀ Xoc¯Sp¡pó bh\I¸epIsf¡pdn¨v ]cmaÀiapïv. kwLw ImeL«¯nse asämcp {]apJ IrXnbmb "]pcm\ópdp' hnð apkncnbpsS Pemib§sf¡pdn¨pw, hmWnPy kwL§sf¡pdn¨pw ]cmaÀiapïv. Xangv ]ucmWnI IrXnbmb ]¯ncp¸m«nð ISenð IqSn sImïphó B`c§fpw aäpw kq£n¡pó XpdapJ§sf¡pdn¨v ]cmaÀi§fpïv. ]ucmWnI kômcnbmbncpó ¹n\n bpsS (Pliny the Elder) (temINcn{X¯nð BZyambn hnizhnÚm\tImiw cNn¨ ]ÞnX\mWv-- ¹o-\n. (Pliny The Elder). {]IrXnimkv{Xw (lntÌmdnbm \m¨pdmenkv) Fó t]cnð 37 hmey§Ä DÅ _rl¯mb {KÙ¯nð 24993 A²ymb§Ä Dïv. At±l-¯nsâ aI\pw ¹o\n Fóv XsóbmWv Adnbs¸SpóXv.) kômcteJ\§fnð apkncnkns\¡pdn¨p ]cmaÀiapïv.

]«Ww DZvL\\¯nð \nópw e`n¨ hnhc§fnð apkncnkpambn _Ôs¸« \nch[n kvamcI§sf¡pdn¨pÅ ]cmaÀi§Ä Im-Wmw. sImSp§ñqcnð \nóv Hóc IntemaoäÀ NpäfhnepÅ ]«Ww {]tZi¯p \S¯nb L\\¯nð alminembpK¯nse (Megalithic age) ]m{X§Ä, sN¼vþCcp¼v \mWb§Ä, ]t¯amcnIfpsS Ahinã§Ä, sNdnb XSnhŧfpsS Ahinã§Ä XpS§nb kp{][m\ sXfnhpIÄ e`n¨p.

]Ån¸pdw tIm«
1503 ð t]mÀ«pKokpImÀ \nÀ½n¨ tIm« apkncnkv XpdapJs¯¯pó I¸epIÄ \óm¡m-\pw, km[\§Ä kq£n¡m\papÅ Øeambn D]tbmKn¨ncpóp. Hcp \nebnð shSnacpóp kq£n¡pIbpw asämcp \ne Bip]{Xnbmbpw D]tbmKn¨v hóp. 1662 U¨pImÀ tIm« IogS¡pIbpïmbn.

Icq¸Só N´, tIm«¸pdw N´
sImSp§ñqcn\p ASp¯v ØnXn sN¿pó Icq¸Só N´bpw, tIm«¸pdw N´bpw apkncnkv {]Xm]Imes¯ {]apJ hmWnPy tI{µ§fmbncpóp. apkncnkv XpdapJw hgnsb¯nbncpó hntZikma{KnIÄ hym]mcw sNbvXncpó {]apJ tI{µ§Ä IqSnbmbncpóp Icq¸Só N´bpw tIm«¸pdw N´bpw. Cópw tIm«¸pdw N´ ]gb {]Xm]t¯mSp IqSn \n-e-\nð-¡p-ópïv. t]mÀ«pKokpImÀ \nÀ½n¨ tIm«bmWv Cu t]cn\p ]nónð. tIm«¸pdw cq]XbpsS BØm\hpw CXp Xsó. Ing¡v IrjvW³ tIm«bpw hS¡v Xncphôn¡pfhpw sX¡v tKmXpcp¯v, henb ]Wn¡³ Xpcp¯v FónhbpamWv. sImSp§ñqcnse {][m\ Acn hym]mcw \S¡póXv tIm«¸pdw N´bnemWv. Ncn{X{][m\amb t]mÀ«pKokv tIm« \ne\nóncpó Øew Cóv BÀ¡ntbmfPn¡ð kÀth Hm^v C´ybpsS kwc£WbnemWv. Iv\mbn tXmasâ kvamcIhpw tIm«¸pd¯v Dïv.

t]mÀ¨pKokpImÀ ]WnX aqóv tIm«Ifnð Hómb sImSp§ñqÀ tIm«bpsS ]mÀizhÀ¯nbmb Øew BbXpsImïmWv tIm«¸pdw Fó t]cp hóXv. tIm«bpsS ASp¯ Øe§Ä tIm«ap¡v Fópw Adnbs¸Spópïv. aq-óphihpw \ZnIfmð Npäs¸«p InS¡póXn\mð kap{Zw hgnbpÅ BZyImes¯ sNdnb XpdapJamhm³ Bhiyamb `q{]IrXnbpïmbXn\memhmw an¡ hym]mcnIfpw tIm«¸pdw BØm\am¡nbncpóp. ISenð \nóv DÅnte¡v {]thin¡mhpó Xc¯nð Bgw IqSnbXpw IpdªXpamb ]pgIfpw Imbensâ kmao]yhpambncn¡Ww {]-[m\w. tIcf¯nð \nóp tdmam¡cpw bh\cpw {InkvXphn\p aptó Xsó hym]mc _豈 Dïmbncpópshóp ImWmw. tIcf¯nð \nópw {][m\ambpw IpcpapfImWv-- AhÀ hm§nbncpóXv--. tNc XeØm\ambncpó Xncphôn¡pfhpw Htóm ctïm IntemaoäÀ ]cn[nbnð hóncpóp. cmPmhn\p Xsâ tImhneI¯p \nópw t\cn«v hm-WnPy tI{µ§fpambn _Ôs¸Sm³ km[n¨ncpóp.

C-´ybnð BZyambn blqZIpSntbä¡mÀ tIcf¯nð F¯póXv tIm«¸pdw hgnbmWv. tIm«¸pd¯n\p Ing¡pÅ amfbmbncpóp AhcpsS BZys¯ Bhmk tI-{µw. {]hmNI\mb apl½Zp \_nbpsS Ime¯n\p ap³t] Xsó Ad_nIÄ tIcf¯nð hym]mc¯nð GÀs¸«ncpóp. ChcpsS {][m\ tI{µw tIm«¸pdambncpóp. A¡me¯p \nÀ½n¡s¸« tNcam³ Ppam akvPnZv-- Fódnbs¸Spó C´ybnse BZys¯ apÉow ]Ån tIcfob ssienbpw ]mc¼cyhpw DÄs¡mïpsImïmWp \nÀ½n¡s¸«ncn¡póXv--. Atd_ybnð \nóp hó amenIv-- C_v-- A\p Zo\mÀ Fó apÉow kn²³ s]cpamfnsâ klmbt¯msS \nÀ½n¨XmWnXv--. CXv tIm«¸pd¯n\Sp¯mWv. \nch[n PqXòmcpw Aóp sImSp§ñqcntebv¡v hóncpóp.

{In.h. 345þð Iv\mbn tXmam Fó _m_ntemWnb³ hym]mcnbpsS t\XrXz¯nð kndnbbnð \nópw \nch[n t]À ChnsS hóp tNÀóp. AhÀ ChnsS ]ÅnIfpw hym]mcØm]\§fpw \nÀ½n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. At±lw hóp Fóv IcpXpó Øe¯v tIm«bw AXncq]X \nÀ½n¨ kvamcIw \nehnepïv.
kmaqXncnbpambn CSª t]mÀ«pKokpImÀ 1503þð sImSp§ñqcnse tIm«¸pd¯v \ZnbpsS Xoc¯v Hcp tIm« \nÀ½n¨p. {Im¦\qÀ tIm« (cranganore fort) FómWv Cu tIm«bpsS t]cv. t]mÀ«pKokv tIm«Ifnð h¨v Gähpw X{´{][m\ambncpó sImSp§ñqÀ tIm« ]nóoSv Sn¸p kpð¯m³ \in¸n¨p. Xð Øm\¯v Ipd¨ Ahinã§Ä am{XamWv D-ÅXv.

sImSp§ñqÀ tIm«
1503þð t]mÀ«pKokpImÀ \nÀ½n¨ tIm«bmWv sImSp§ñqÀ tIm«. tIm«¸pdw Fó Øe¯mWnXv. sIm¨nbnð t]mÀ¨pKokv-- ta[mhnXz¯n-sâ aqóp s\Spw XqWpIfnsemómWnXv--. aäp csï®w 1503þð \nÀan¨ C½m\pað tIm«bpw, 1507þse ]Ån¸pdw tIm«bpw (AbotIm«) BWv--.

IcþISð aqeapÅ B{IaW§sf kaÀ°ambn sNdp¡m³ km[yamb Øe¯mWv-- CXv-- \nÀ½n¨Xv--. \nÀ¯em¡nb tIm«¸pdw sP«n¡v-- Að]w Ing¡mbn IrjvWt¦m«bpsS ]Snªmdmbn Hcp tImWnemWv-- CXnsâ Øm\w. Hcp sNdnb Ipón³ ]pdw DÄs¸Spó Xc¯nemWv-- CXnsâ \nÀ½mWw. AI¯v-- sIm¯f§fpw shSnt¡m¸pimebpw Dïv--. t]mÀ¨pKokv-- tIm«Ifnð h¨v-- AXn _enjvThpw AP¿hpambncpóp Cu tIm«. DÀ_mt\m ^nbmðslm s^dod Fó DtZymKØsâ Iognembncpóp sImSp§ñqÀ tIm«.

_tähnbbnse BØm\¯p \nópw tIm« ]nSn¡m\pÅ Ið¸\ e`n¨ U¨pImÀ sImñ¯p \nóv sImSp§ñqcntebv¡v-- hóp. Fómð sIm¨o cmPmhv-- ]menb¯¨sâ t\XrXz¯nð 400 \mbÀ ]SbmfnItfmsSm¸w tIm«bnð X¼Sn¨ncpóp. U¨pImÀ¡v-- kmaqXncn klmbw Dïmbncpóp.

U¨pImÀ IcþISð amÀ¤§Ä D]tcm[n¨p, tIm«bv¡Sp¯mbn Hcp Xpc¦w \nÀ½n¡m\mcw`n¨p. Fómð t]mÀ¨pKokpImcpsS ]oc¦n¡p apónð AhÀ¡v-- ]nSn¨p \nð¡m\mbnñ. U¨pImÀ kÔn¡t]£ns¨¦nepw ^nbmðtlm B{IaWw IqäpXð iàns¸Sp¯pIbmWv-- sNbvXXv--.

Fómð ]menb¯¨³ t]mÀ¨pKokpImsc Häns¡mSp¯p. tIm«bnð \nóv X{´ ]qÀÆw ]pd¯p ISó ]menb¯¨³ U¨pImsc kÔn¨v-- tIm«bnð Ffp¸w {]thin¡mhpó amÀ¤w ]dªpsImSp¯p. 1662 P\phcn 15\v-- U¨pImÀ B{IaWw ]p\cmcw`n¨p. ]oc¦n sImïv-- tIm«bnð hnÅepïm¡m\pw AXp hgn AIt¯bv¡v-- Ibdm\pw AhÀ¡v-- Ignªp. tIm«bpsS {][m\ `mK§Ä ssI¡em¡nbtXmsS t]mÀ¨pKokpImÀ tXmWnIfnð Ibdn A¼g¡ms« skan\mcnbnte¡v-- c£s¸«p. ^nbmðtlm bpw 200 t]mÀ¨pKokv-- ]«mf¡mcpw \qtdmfw \mbÀ ]SbmfnIfpw sImñs¸«p. ]S¸m«v-- Fó aebmf Imhy¯nð Cu bp²s¯¡pdn¨v-- hniZambn {]Xn]mZn¨ncn¡póp. Fómð CXv-- FgpXnbXv-- Bscóv Adn-bnñ.

Bgn Xòt²yacphpw sImSp§ñqÀ
NqsgbSpt¯m cacmep* a¡mew
sh«panSnt]mse s]m«pw shSnsbmSpw
tIm«]nSn¸m\Xp XpS§n\mÀ
Iq«w IeÀó ]d¦n¸cnjbpw
Iq«w IqSn shSnh¨p XpS§n\mÀ
`qac ktµiw Fó kwk-vIrX Imhy¯nepw tIm«sb ]änbpÅ ]cmaÀiw Dïv--.
Sn¸phnsâ ]Stbm«¡me¯v-- sImSp§ñqÀ tIm« ]Ån¸pdw tIm«tbmsSm¸w XncphnXmwIqÀ cmPmhv-- amÀ¯mÞ hÀ½ U¨pImcnð \nóv hnebv¡p hm§n. KXy´canñmsX U¨pImÀ hnäp Fóp ]dbmw. Ahsc A{Xbv¡v-- k½À±¯nem¡nbncpóp --amÀ¯mÞ hÀ½. Zfhm tIih ]nÅbmWv-- CXv-- km[ns¨Sp¯Xv--. 964 amïv-- IÀ¡nSIw 19þ\p" shIpam\s¸« Ip¼ªn (U¨p Ic³)bpsS t]À¡ sImSp§ñqÀ tIm«bnepw ap\¼¯pw B Xe§fnepÅ henb tXm¡pIfpw tNgw ]Sshª\mZnIfpw shSnacpópw ssIt¯m¡pw shSn¯obpw GXm\pw hkvXp¡fpw IqSmsX tNgw (tijw) AhnsSbpÅ Dð]¯nIfpw ]d¼pIfpw aqóp \qdmbncwNpd¯n shÅncq]mbn¡ AXnteÀ B¦nð sh¡ Xncpa\Ênse t]À¡ Xfhm tINh]nÅ¡m Hgnªp sImSp¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

1790 P\phcnbnð s\Spt¦m«bnð BZyw Dïmb B{IaW¯nð ]cmPbs¸« Sn¸p kpð¯m³ (apS´p kw`hn¨ bp²w Fóv Nne Ncn{XImcòmÀ ]dbpóp) IqSpXð t]mjI tk\Ifpambn AtX hÀjw G{]nð 15 \p s\Spt¦m« B{Ian¨v-- Bdv-- Znhkw sImïv-- Hcp Intem aoätdmfw \of¯nð tIm« \in¸n¡pIbpw XpSÀóv tabv-- 7 \v-- sImSp§ñqÀ tIm« ]nSn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. ]nóoSv-- Hsómómbn ]Ån¸pdw, ]-dhqÀ, Ipcym¸nÅn Fóo tIm«Ifpw- ]nSn¨p. Fómð Cw¥ojpImÀ {iocwK]«Ww B{Ian¡m³ X¿msdSp¡póp Fódnª Sn¸p kpð¯m³ XncphnXmwIqÀ B{IaWw aXnbm¡n Xncn¨p t]mbn. t]mIpó hgn¡v-- tIm«bv¡v-- h³ \mi \ã§Ä Dïm¡m³ ssakqÀ ssk\yw adónñ. tIm«bv¡I¯pïmbncpó PmXn¡mbIÄ hsc Sn¸p kpð¯m³ ssakqÀ¡v-- sImïpt]mbn.
tIcf kÀ¡m-cnsâ B`napJy¯nð \S¯s¸Spó ]²Xn, a¬adªt]mb apkn-cn-knsâ Ncn{X]chpw kmwk-vImcnIhpamb HuóXyw ]pdwtemI¯n\p {]Imi\w sN¿m³ e£yan«n«pÅXmWv. 2006ð ]«Ww DZvL\\t¯msSbmWv ]²Xn Bcw`n¨Xv. C´ybnse Gähpw henb ss]XrI kwc£W]²Xn IqSnbmWv apkncnkv.

Readers Comments

ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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