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Ìo^³ tlm¡nwMvknsâ `uXnIhmZw imkv{XZr-jvSym \ne\nð¡pó-tXm?

Britishmalayali
t]mÄ aWvUew

alm imkv{XÚ\mb Ìo^³ tlm¡nMvknsâ \ncymWs¯ XpSÀóv At±l¯nsâ imkv{X kn²m´§fpw am[y§fnð {]kn²oIcn¨p. At±l¯nsâ kn²m´w CXmWv. Cu {]]ôw Bcpw krjvSn¨Xñ. AXv X\nsb cq]w ]qïXmWv. acWm\´c PohnXw Cñ. Fñmw ChnsS sImïhkm\n¡póp. CXmWv At±l¯nsâ `uXnI hmZ§Ä.

CtX XpSÀóv Bßob hmZnIÄ At±l¯ns\Xnsc {]XnIcn¡pIbpw apÉow aX Xo{hhmZnIÄ At±ls¯ s]m«³, N«³, Iq\³, IpcpS³, Ipª³ Fóp XpS§n t¾Ñamb `mjIfnð Ak`yhÀj§Ä sNmcnbpIbpw sNbvXp.

F´mbmepw At±lw alm\mb Hcp imkv{XÚ\mWv. Hcphncen\p am{Xw kzð¸w Ne\ tijn Dïmbncpó At±lw ]pcnIw sImïv Bib hn\nabw \S¯n. a\Êp sImïp Pohn¨p Xsâ `bm\Iamb imcocI ZuÀ_ey§sf adnISóv alm imkv{XÚ\mbn¯oÀóp. F´mbmepw At±ls¯ ]pe`yw ]dbpóXn\p ]Icw At±l¯nsâ imkv{X kn²m´§Ä intbm sXtäm Fóv A]{KYn¡pIbmWv thïnbXv. At±l¯nsâ kn²m´§sf FXnÀ¡pó [mcmfw almimkv{XÚòmÀ [mcmfapïv.

C\nbpw At±l¯nsâ imkv{X kn²m´w F´msWóv t\m¡mw

Cu {]]ôw Bcpw krjvSn¨Xñ. AXp X\nsb cq]w ]qïXmWv. Asñ¦nð A\mZnImew apXte DÅXmWv. AXn\v Bcw`hpanñ Ahkm\hpanñ. Fómð Ct±l¯nsâ Xsó ""{_o^v lnÌdn Hm^v ssSw'' Fó ]pkvXI¯nð {]]ô krjvSnbnð ssZh¯nsâ ZuXys¯¸än iàambn {]Xn]mZn¡póp. At±l¯nsâ ]pXnb ]pkvXI¯nemWv {]]ô krjvSnbnð ssZh¯nsâ Bhiyanñ Fóp ]dbpóXv.

Fómð At±l¯nsâ Cu kn²m´w BsI Cf¡n adn¡s¸«p. {]]ô¯nsâ ]g¡w imkv{XÚòmÀ \nÀ®bn¨p Ignªp. `qanbpsS ]g¡w 430 tImSn hÀj§Ä kqcysâ ]g¡w 650 tImSn hÀj§Ä. {]]ô¯nsâ ]g¡w 1500 tImSnbpw. ""tImkvamIv _mIv{Kuïv ssat{Imthhv tdUntbj³'' Fó {]Xn`mkw Isï¯nbXns\ XpSÀómWv imkv{XÚòmÀ {]]ô¯nsâ ]g¡w \nÝbn¨Xv.

Cóv alm kvt^mS\ kn²m´w imkv{Xw AwKoIcn¨p Ignªp. ""bqWnthgvkv Iw C³ Sp FIvknä³kv C³ F sU^n\näv t]mbnâv Hm]v ssSw Fóv imkv{Xw Isï¯n. Cu alm kvt^mS\ kn²m´w BhnjvIcn¨Xv ^mZÀ tPmÀPv eabnäÀ Fó It¯men¡m ]ptcmlnX\mb imkv{XÚ\mbncpóp. ""DïmIs«'' Fó Hä hm¡p sImïv {]]ôw Dïmbn Fó ss__nÄ hmIys¯ Cu kn²m´w icn hbv¡póp.

First Law of Thermondynamic

F³ÀPn It\m«v _o {IntbäUv HmÀ UnÌtdmbUv'' DuÀÖw krjvSn¡phmt\m \in¸n¡phmt\m km[yañ. Cu DuÀÖ kn²m´s¯ Bkv]Zam¡nbpÅ Isï¯epIfmbncpóp At±l¯ntâXv. CX\pkcn¨v {]]ôw A\pZmbmsWóv At±lw hmZn¨p. Fómð Second Law of Thermondynamic ð `uXnI imkv{Xw C{]Imcw ]dbpóp. e`yambncn¡pó DuÀÖw sImïv Hcp knÌw XpSÀ¨bmbn {]hÀ¯n¡pIbnñ. {ItaW AXp inYneamIpw. XpSÀ¨bmbn FhnsS \nsó¦nepw DuÀÖw e`ns¨¦nð am{Xta AXv {]hÀ¡pIbpÅq. imkv{X¯nsâ AewL\obamb \nbaamWnXv. AXpsImïmWv Ìo^³kv tlm¡nwMvkv ]dªXv Cu {_mÒmWvUw Ftó XIÀóp t]mtImïXmbncpóp Fóv. Fómð AtÚbamb GtXm t{kmXÊnð \nópw AhÀ¤fambn \nÀ¤fn¡pó DuÀÖamWv {]]ôs¯ Xm§n \nÀ¯póXv. AXn_rl¯mb GtXm AÚmX tI{µ¯nð \nópw CXp hcpóp. `qanbpsS GsXmcp tImWnepw Htc Bfhnð knsâ³knänbnð Cu DuÀÖw e`n¨p sImïncn¡póp. CXnsâ {]`h tI{µw At\zjn¨v imkv{Xw ]I¨p \nð¡pIbmWv. CXv UmÀ¡v F\ÀPn Fódnbs¸Spóp.

Hcp km[mcW hr£¯nse DuÀÖw thÀXncns¨Sp¯mð AXv \yqtbmÀ¡v alm\Kc¯n\v Hcp Znhks¯ shZypXn \ðIphm\pÅ DuÀÖapïv imkv{XÚòmÀ Isï¯nbncn¡póp. At¸mÄ a\pjy icoc¯nepw C¯c¯nepÅ DuÀÖw AS§nbn«pïv. DuÀÖw krjvSn¡phmt\m \in¸n¡phmt\m km[yañ Fó imkv{X¯nsâ AewL\obamb \nba\pkcn¨v a\pjysâ acW tijw DuÀÖw FhnsS t]mIpóp? a\pjy Aht_m[hpw a\Êpw hnImc hnNmc§fpw hyànXzhpw Fñm DÄs¡mÅpó Cu DuÀÖ kôbs¯ Asñ Bßmhv Fóp hnfn¡póXv?

Fñm `uXnI imkv{XÚ]cpw Cóp hnizkn¡póXpw Isï¯nbXpamb kXyw {]]ô¯n\v Hcp Bcw`hpw Ahkm\hpw Dïv FóXmWv.

FhnsS \nóv iàamb {]IrXn \nba§fpw {]]ô \nba§fpw DSseSp¯p? Hcp \nbaw X\nsb DïmIptam? Cu {]]ôs¯ Xm§n \nÀ¯pó kp{][m\§fmb \mð¸tXmfw `uXnI \nba§Ä Dsïóv Ìo^³ t^m¡n³kv A`n{]mbs¸Spóp. Cu \nba§Ä FhnsS \nóp hóp? KWnX imkv{X \nba§Ä, Poh imkv{X \nba§Ä Chsbñmw FhnsS \nópïmbn? Bbnc¡W¡mb Cu {]m]ônI \nba§Ä F§s\bpïmbn? Chsbñmw iyq\yXbnð \nóv X\nsb DZv`qXambXmtWm?

AÛpXIc§fmb KWnX imkv{X \nba§fpw Akm[mcW§fmb `uXnI \nba§fmbpw {]IrXn \nba§fmbpw Fñmw Cu {]]ôw \ne\nð¡póp. Cu \nbakwlnXIÄ A\pkcn¨mtWm {]]ôw hnIkn¨Xv? At¸mÄ ]ZmÀ°w cq]s¸SpóXn\v ap³]v Cu \nba kwlnXIÄ ChnsS Dïmbncn¡Ww. AsXsñ ss__nÄ ]dbpó hN\w amwkambn FóXnsâ imkv{Xob hiw?

imkv{Xw k¦ð¸n¡pó alm kvt^mS\ kn²m´¯nse ]ZmÀ°w FhnsS \nóp hóp? AXp shdpw iyq\yXbnð \nóv DZv`qXambXmtWm? B alm kvt^mS\¯n\p aqeImcWamb DuÀÖw FhnsS \nópïmbn. AXn\p tijw tem Bâv HmÀUÀ A\pkcn¨v {]]ôw hnIkn¡pI. kqcy\pw `qanbpw a\pjy³ hscbpÅ PohPme§fpw X\nsb cq]w ]qïp. Chsbñmw BÀs¡¦nepw hnizkn¡phm³ km[n¡ptam? Fñmw D¯cw In«m¯ kakybmbn Ahtijn¡póp.

Fñm {]IrXn {]Xn`mk§fpw GtXm AZriy iànbpsS \nba kwlnXIfmð \nb{´n¡s¸Spóp.

Hcn¡ð Ìo^³ tlm¡nwMvkv ]dª hmNIamWnXv.

arK§fpsSbpw ]£nIfpsSbpw `qanbnse BhnÀ`mhw hfsc s]s«ómbncpóp Fóp imkv{Xw Isï¯n¡gnªp. BWpws]®pambn hyXykvX icoc LS\ItfmSp IqSn kmPmXysshPmXy§tfmSp IqSn Ah F{]Imcw `qanbnð BhnÀ`hn¨p? ChnsS `uXnI imkv{Xw AkvXn{]ÚamIpóp.

ChnsS ]gb Hcp \nÊmcambn tXmópó tNmZyw {]kàamIpóp. ap«bmtWm tImgnbmtWm BZyw DïmbXv Fóv. Hcp tImgn ap«bnð `mhnbnse Hcp tImgn Ipªnsâ kIe cq]tcJIfpw AXnsâ UnF³F tImUnð AS¡w sNbvXncn¡póp. Hcp Bªnen¡m Ipcphnð Bªnenac¯nsâ Fñm cq]tcJIfpw »q {]nâv AS§nbncn¡póp.

Cu UnF³F tImUv Hcp clky `mjbmWv. Ah PohPme§fpsS `mKt[b§sf \nb{´n¡póp. Cu `qanbnð F{]Imcw Poh³ BhnÀ`hn¨p? tImSnIW¡n\mb ASnØm\ aqeI§sf Hcpan¨p tNÀ¯mepw Poh³ Fó ASnØm\ LSIw DïmIpósX§s\? Hcp a\pjy Poh³ cq]m´cs¸SWsa¦nð 300 tImSn ASnØm\ aqeI§Ä thWw. Ch Hcpan¨p tNÀ¯mepw Poh³ Fó AÛpX {]Xn-`mkw Dïm-Ip-ó-sX-§s\? imkv{X-¯n\v D¯-c-an-ñ.

Poh-tIm-i-§-fn-epÅ t{Ima-tkm-ap-I-fnð AS¡w sNbvXn-cn-¡pó Po\p-IÄ ià-amb Ce-Ivt{Sm¬ ssat{Im-kvtIm-¸nsâ klm-b-¯mð am{Xw Chsb ImWp-hm³ km[n-¡p-óp. Ch-bnse UnF³F Xòm-{X-I-fnð A£-c-§-fmbn Cu tImUv Fgp-X-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-óp. F, kn, än, Pn Fó \me-£-c-§Ä. Cu UnF³F tImUv Hcp `mj-bm-Wv. CXnð tImUv `mj-bn-epÅ ktµ-i-§Ä AS-§n-bn-cn-¡p-óp. Cu ktµ-i-§Ä \oïp t]mIp-óXv A\-hZn hnZq-c-amb {]m]-ônI tImUn-te-¡m-Wv. AXmWv Pohsâ ktµ-i-saóv imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ Icp-Xp-óp. CXv krjvSn-bpsS cq]-tc-J-bm-Wv. ImcWw Cu tImUnsâ Xmt¡mð {]]ô koa-IÄ¡-¸p-d-¯pÅ Hcp ASn-Øm\ tImUn-te¡v \oïp t]mIpóp Fó-XmWv imkv{X-Úsc AÛp-X-s¸-Sp-¯p-ó-Xv. ssZhw hN-\-¯mð Fñm krjvSn¡pw Fópw, hN\w amwk-ambn Fóp-apÅ ss__nÄ hN-\-§-fpw Cu UnF³F tImUv Fó a\p-jysâ A-Sn-Øm\ `mj Iïp ]nSn-¨-tXmSp IqSn A\yÀ°-am-bn-cn-¡p-óp. lnµp ]pcm-W-§-fnepw hN\w amwk-ambn FópÅ XXz-§Ä ImWmw.

hmtIym ssh {_Ò þ (B-Zn-bnð hmIy (h-N-\w) Dïm-bn-cp-óp.
i_vZm-£I ]c-{_mÒ þ hN-\-ap-ïm-¡nb i_vZw aqÀ¯ cq]w {]m]n-¡p-óp.
i_vtZm-ssh-{_mÒ þ i_vZw {_mÒ-am-bn-cpóp.
({_Ò-_tµm ]\n-jjXv) (h-Nw\ ssZh-am-bn-cpóp ss__nÄ)

Fñm krjvSn-cq-]-§fpw Cu UnF³F tImUnð AS¡w sNbvXn-c-¡p-óp. Cu P\-änIv tImUv t\Àtc-J-bnð Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡pó Hcp `mj-bm-Wv. Hcp {Kmw UnF³-Fbv¡v Hcp {Snñy³ knUn-I-fnð DÄs¡m-Åp-hm³ km[n-¡p-ó{X C³^Àta-j-\p-IÄ DÄs¡m-Åp-hm³ km[n-¡pw. AXm-bXv ]Xn-\m-bncw tImSn knUn-I-fnð DÄs¡m-Åp-hm-\pÅ C³^Àta-j-\p-IÄ Hcp {Kmw UnF³-F-bnð AS¡w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-óp.

P\änIvknsâbpw enwKp-Ìn-¡n-sâbpw imkv{X kwLw kwbp-à-ambn \S-¯nb ]T-\-¯nð kwkm-c-¯n-sâbpw `mj-bp-sSbpw ASn-Øm\ Po\p-IÄ Isï-¯n. emwtKzPv Po³ þ krjvSmhv a\p-jy\p am{Xw \ðInb {]tXyI k½m-\-§-fnð Hóm-Wv. CXp a\p-jy-\nð am{Xw AS¡w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-óp.

a\pjy akvXnjvIw A]m-c-amb krjvSn-ssh-`-h-t¯mSp IqSn Bhn-jvI-cn-¨n-cn-¡pó Hcp kq¸À I¼yq-«-dm-Wv. sk¡ânð 100 tImSn IW-¡p-IÄ sN¿pó kq¸À I¼yq-«-dp-IÄ Dïv. Fómð Ah-tb-¡mÄ At\Iw tImSn aS§v iàn-bpÅ Hcp kq¸ÀI-¼yq-«-dmWv a\pjy akvXnjvIw ]Xn-\m-bncw tImSn \yqtdm¬ tImi-§-fnð Ce-Ivt{Sm-Wn-¡-embn tImUv sNbvXv hnh-c-§Ä tiJ-cn-¨p h¨n-cn-¡p-óp. a\p-jysâ _p²n, `mh-\, HmÀ½-IÄ, kvt\lw, Iem-hm-k-\, kwKo-X, inð¸w, Nn{X-c-N\ C§s\ t]mIpóp akvXn-jvI-¯nsâ Dð¸-ó-§Ä. Fómð Fñm-än-\p-]-cn-bmbn a\pjy akvXn-j-I-¯nð Hcp kncm Ae-ànI {]`m-h-ebw AS¡w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-ó-Xmbn Isï-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-óp. ]qÀÆn-I-amb Cu P\n-XI k¼-¯mWv a\pjys\ a\p-jy-\m-¡p-ó-Xv. Cu {]`m-h-ebw hnZqc {]]-ô-ko-a-I-fn-te¡v \oïp t]mIpó FómWv imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ Isï-¯nbn-cn¡p-óXv. ac-W- ti-jhpw 36 aWn¡qdpI-tfmfw Cu CeIvt{Sm amá-änIv Xcw-K-§Ä akvXn-jvI-¯nð \nópw ]pd-s¸«p sImïn-cn-¡p-Ibpw {ItaW AXp aµo-`-hn¨p \nóp t]mIp-Ibpw sN¿p-óp.

Cw¥-ïnse \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-I-fpsS t\Xmhpw imkv{X-Ú-\pamb BâWn ^vfq a\Êp amdn Cuizchn-izmkn Bb-Xnsâ ImcWw At±lw Fgp-Xp-óp. AÛp-X-I-chpw Agn-iz-k-\o-bhpw AXn-k-¦oÀ®-§-fp-amb 300 tImSn ASn-Øm\ aqe-IÄ Hcp-an¨p IqSn Poh³ Fó AÛpX {]Xn-`mkw Dïm-Ip-óXpw UnF³F tImUpw Fñmw a\-Ên-em-¡n-b-t¸mÄ krjvSn-bpsS ]nón-epÅ A]m-c-amb _p²p ssh`hw Rm³ a\-Ên-em-¡n. (There is a God: How TheWorlds Natorious Scientist Canged His MindO 2007)

\nco-iz-cXzw ]tï a-cn¨p

F´m-bmepw UnF³F tImUv Fó Pohsâ ASn-Øm\ A\m-h-cWw sNbvXXp hgn \nco-iz-c-Xz-¯nsâ ac-W-aWn apg§n¡gn-ªn-cn-¡p-óp. Cu `qanbnse Hcp ]pðs¡m-Sn-bpsS DÅnð \S-¡pó AÛpX {]Xn-`m-k-§-tf-¸-äntbm F´n\v Hcp tImgn-ap-«-bpsS DÅnð Poh³ AS-¡n-h-¨n-cn-¡pó AÛp`pX hnZy-I-sf-¡p-dnt¨m e£-¯n-sem-cwiw F¦nepw Adnthm Nn´m-i-àntbm DÅ-hÀ AXnsâ ]nónepÅ krjvSm-hns\ Isï-¯póp. Fómð bmtXmcp Nn´m-i-ànbpañm-¯-hÀ Ch-sbñw X\nsb cq]w {]m]n-¨-Xm-sWóv I®-S¨p hniz-kn-¡p-óp. Cu `qan-bnð Poh³ \ne-\nð¡p-ó-Xn-\-\p-Iq-e-ambn `qan krjvSn-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-óp. tImSm-\p-tImSn A\p-Iq-e-km-l-N-cy-§Ä tImÀ¯n-W-¡n-bmWv `qan Pohsâ ]dp-Zok B¡n amän-bn-cn-¡p-ó-Xv. AXn-sem-ón-\p-t]mepw hyXymkw kw`-hn-¨mð `qan-bnð Poh³ \ne-\nð¡p-I-bn-ñ.

{]]ô-¯nsâ \ne-\nð¸n\pw \nKq-V-c-l-ky-¯n\pw ]nónð Hcp am¯-am-än-¡ð t^mÀap-ebp-ïv.

imkv{X-Ú-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-¯nð AhÀ®-ao-b-amb kuµ-cy-t¯mSp A]m-c-amb hnÚm-\-t¯mSp ka-Ú-k-ambn ka-\z-bn-¸n¨ ASn-Øm\ XXz-§Ä sImïpw ASn-bp-d¨ imkv{Xob \nb-a-§Ä sImïp-amWv {]]ôw krjv-Sn-¨n-cn-¡p-ó-Xv.

Poh-Pm-e-§-fpsS izmk-tIm-iw, lrZ-bw, InUv\n Fón-§-s\-bpÅ Ah-b-h-§Ä Ah-bpsS {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä I®v, sNhn, Xz¡v Ch-bpsS LS-\-IÄ Fó-ñmsX Hcp tcmaIq]w F¦nepw ico-c-¯nð LSn-¸n-¨n-cn-¡pó ssPh-imkv{X hnZy-IÄ F¦nepw Adn-bm-hpó Hcp hyàn¡v Ch-sbñmw X\nsb Dïm-b-Xm-Wóv ]d-bp-hm³ km[n-¡ptam? 

Readers Comments

ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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