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\\{k¯pw amXmhnsâ InWdpwþ C{ktbð bm{X 3

Britishmalayali
tSmw tPmkv XSnbw¼mSv

1947 Pq¬ 13-þmw XobXn C´ybpsS \\nbpà {][m\\a{´n PhlÀemð s\\lvdphn\\v blqZ kaqlw temI¯n\\v kw`mh\\ sNbvX Gähpw {]Kð`\\mb hyànIfnð Hcmfmb kÀ Bð_À«v sF³Ìo³ \\mev t]PpÅ Hcp Is¯gpXn. B I¯nð At±lw C§s\\ ]dbpóp. \\n§fpsS `cW LS\\ Akw»n IqSn sXm«p Iq«mbvabpw Xoïn¡qSmbvabpw \\nÀ¯em¡m³ Xocpam\\n¨p. Fómð \\n§fpsS cmPys¯ A[ØnXsc¡mÄ ]oV\\w A\\p`hn¨ Hcp Iq«w a\\pjycmWv blqZÀ. AhÀ temIw apgph³ ]oVn¡s¸«p s]mXp kaql¯nð \\nópw Xoïm¸mSIse \\nÀ¯n.  B{ibw tXSn temIw apgph³ Aeªp. tIm¬k³t{Sj³ Iym¼pIfnð AXn arKoambn sIme sN¿s¸«p. A`bw tXSn Ignª 2000 hÀjw temIw apgph³ Aeª R§Ä¡v C{ktbð Fó cmPyw Dïm¡póXn\\v thïn klmbn¡Ww. C´y bpF³Fbnð C{ktben\\v thïn thm«v sN¿Ww Fómbncpóp B I¯nsâ DÅS¡w. Fómð Pqsse 11 ð s\\lvdp sF³Ìo\\v FgpXnb aqóv t]PpÅ adp]Sn I¯nð C§s\\ ]dªp F\\n¡v PqX³amscbpw AXpt]mse Xsó Ad_nItfmSpw A\\pI¼bpïv. XoÀ¨bmbpw \\n§fpsS {]hÀ¯\\w sImïv ]meÌbn\\nse BfpIfpsS PohnXw sa¨s¸Spsaópw Rm³ hnizkn¡póp. Fómð AhcpsS ssIhiw Ccn¡pó A¸w \\n§Ä X«nsbSp¡pw Fóv AhÀ hnizkn¡póp. AhcpsS CÑmiàn IqSn \\n§Ä¡v A\\pIqeamIpónsñ¦nð \\n§Ä Øm]n¡pó cmjv{Sw Hcn¡epw kam[m\\¯nð ]pecm³ Ignbnñ Fóp Rm³ hnizkn¡póp. 
 
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s\\lvdphpw Bbn hyàn]cambn hfsc ASp¸w ]peÀ¯pIbpw s\\lvdphnsâ hniz {]kn²amb UnkvIhdn Hm^v C´y Fó ]pkvXI¯n\\v AhXmcnI FgpXpIbpw sNbvX sF³Ìosâ A`yÀ°\\sb am\\n¡m¯ C´y C{ktbð cmjv{S cq]oIcW¯ns\\Xnsc thm«p sNbvsX¦nepw `qcn]£w t\\Sn AhÀ C{ktbð Fó cmjv{Sw 1948ð Øm]n¨p.

hyàn]cambn s\\lvdphn\\v blqZtcmSv klXm]hpw A\\pI¼bpw Dïmbncpsó¦nepw C´ybpsS AI¯v kzm[o\\w sNep¯m³ Ignbpó apÉow \\yq\\]£s¯ `bs¸«mWv C´y A§s\\ Hcp \\bw kzoIcn¡m³ X¿mdmbXv FómWv tIw{_nUvPnse {]^kÀ s_ón tamdokv 2005ð KmÀUnb³knð FgpXnb teJ\\¯nð ]dªncn¡póXv. F´msW¦nepw Hcp Imcyw hkvXpXbmWv. s\\lvdp Nqïn ImWn¨ AÊam[m\\¯nsâ Nn \\½Ä¡v C{ktbense Fñm ]«W§fnsebpw ]«mf kmón²yw sImïv Xsó Xncn¨dnbm³ Ignbpw.
 
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ASp¯ Znhks¯ R§fpsS ]cyS\\¯nsâ `mKambn cmhnse Xsó Fgptóäv 7 aWnbv¡v sdUnbmbn t{_¡v ^mÌv Ign¡m³ hó¸w Xsó R§fpsS kwL¯nð Dïmbncpó anÌÀ AKÌn\\pw, anÌÀ tPmkpw IpSpw_mwK§fpw t\\cs¯ Xsó Fgptóäv Keoenb ISense kqtcmZbw ZÀin¨v t^mt«mbpw FSp¯v Xncn¨v hóncpóp. AhÀ FSp¯ t^mt«mIÄ hfsc at\\mlcambn tXmón. t{_¡v ^mÌv Ignªv F«v aWnbv¡v R§Ä bm{X Bcw`n¨p. {InkvXphnsâ hoSv ØnXn sNbvXncpó \\{k¯ntebv¡v R§Ä t]mbXv. \\{k¯v FóXnsâ AÀ°w ssZht¯mSv hnt[bs¸« FómWv. AhnsS aZÀ tacn shÅw tiJcn¨ncpó InWÀ BWv BZyw IïXv. InWdnt\\mSv tNÀóv Ccn¡pó ]Ån {Ko¡v HmÀ¯tUmIvkv k`bpsS hIbmWv. ImcWw {Ko¡v HmÀ¯tUmIvkpImÀ hnizkn¡póXv InWdnsâ ASp¯p hót¸mgmWv K{_ntbð amemJ {]Xy£s¸«v ssZh lnX¯mð AhÀ KÀ`w [cn¨p Fó awKf hmÀ¯ Ahsf Adnbn¨Xv FómWv. InWdnsâ ASn¯«nð sNdpXmbn shÅw Ct¸mgpw ImWmw. InWdnð Bcpw ]Ww CScpXv Fóv FgpXn h¨n«psï¦nepw temI¯nse H«p an¡ \\mWb§fpw hnizmknIÄ AhnsS t\\À¨bmbn C«ncn¡póXv ImWmambncpóp.
 
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]Ånbpw InWdpw IïXn\\v tijw amXmhnsâ hoSv Ccn¡pó It¯men¡cpsS ]Ånbnte¡v t]mbn Hcp sNdnb Ipóv \\Sóv IbdnbmWv AhnsS F¯nbXv. awKf hmÀ¯ ]Ån FómWv Cu ]Ån Adnbs¸SpóXv (NÀ¨v Hm^v A\\u¬tkj³) amXmhnsâ hoSv Ccn¡póXnsâ NpäpamWv Cu _rl¯mb ]Ån ]WnXncn¡póXv. It¯men¡m hnizmk¯nð amXmhn\\v K{_ntbð amemJ {]Xy£s¸«v awKf hmÀ¯ Adnbn¨Xv amXmhnsâ `h\\¯nð h¨mWv. GXmïv cïv \\neIfnembn ]WnXncn¡pó ]ÅnbpsS ASn¯«nð amXmhnsâ hoSnsâ `mKamb Hcp Kpl ImWmw. AhnsSbmWv amemJ {]Xy£s¸«Xv FómWv hnizmkw. 1969ð BWv ]pXnb ]Ån ]WnXXv. B Ime¯v a²y]qÀÆ tZis¯ Gähpw henb ]Ån IqSnbmbncpóp CXv. aÄ«n \\mjWð NÀ¨v FómWv Cu ]Ånsb Adnbs¸SpóXv. temI¯nse hnhn[ cmPy§fnse kw`mh\\bneqsSbmWv Cu ]Ån \\nÀ½n¨ncn¡póXv. ]Ånbv¡v Ing¡³ hmXnð kw`mh\\ sNbvXncn¡póXv Atacn¡bnð \\nópw BWv. Cu hmXnenð amXmhnsâ PohnX¯nsâ Fñm {][m\\ kw`h§sfbpw sIm¯nh¨n«pïv. AXpt]mse temIs¯ hnhn[ cmPy§fnð D]tbmKn¡pó amXmhnsâ cq]§Ä AhnsS {]ZÀin¸n¨n«pïv. C´ybnð \\nópw DÅ amXmhnsâ cq]w Bbn thfm¦®n amXmhns\\bmWv {]ZÀin¸n¡póXv.
 
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Fñm cmPys¯ amXmhnsâ cq]¯nepw AXmXv cmPys¯ a\\pjycpsS cq]hpw Bbn Nne kmZriy§Ä \\ap¡v ZÀin¡m³ Ignbpw. temI¯nse H«p an¡ `mjIfnepw amXmhnt\\mSpÅ {]mÀ°\\ `n¯nbnð FgpXn h¨n«pïv. ss_kmâbn³ ImeL«¯nð ]WnX Cu ]Ån ]nóoSv ]e XhW \\in¡s¸«n«pïv. aebmf¯nð FgpXn h¨ncpó amXmhnt\\mSv DÅ {]mÀ°\\ Hs¡ Iïv R§Ä ]pd¯nd§n. ]Ånbnð IbdpóXn\\v ap³]v Fñmhcpw sXm¸n FSp¯v amäWsaópw kv{XoIÄ Xe adbv¡Wsaópw \\ni_vZw Bbncn¡Ww Fóp ssKUv ]dªncpóp.
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NÀ¨v Hm^v A\\u¬tkj\\nð \\nópw sXm«Sp¯ skâv tPmk^nsâ hoSncn¡pó skâv tPmk^v ]Ånbntebv¡v R§Ä t]mbn AhnsS tPmk^nsâ ]gb hoSpw Bimcn tPmenIÄ sNbvXncpóp Fóp hnizkn¡pó Øehpw A¡mes¯ amÀ¡änsâ AhinjvS§fpw Hs¡ ImWm³ Ignªp.
 
\\{k¯v Cóv Hcp Ad_v ]«WamWv. 75% Ad_nIfpw 25% blqZcpw BWv ChnsS Pohn¡póXv. 75% hcpó Ad_nIfnð 10%  am{XamWv {InkvXym\\nIÄ .{InkvXphnsâ injy³amcnð s_À¯temanbkv \\{k¯nð \\nópw DÅ injy\\mWv. tbm\\ {]hmNI\\pw ChnSp¯pImc\\mbncpóp.
 
\\{k¯nð \\nópw Aôp ssað AIsebpÅ Im\\mbnte¡v R§Ä ]pds¸«p. Im\\mbnð \\Só IñymW¯n\\mWv {InkvXp BZyambn AÛpXw {]hÀ¯n¨Xv. Im\\mbnð At±lw shÅw hoªm¡n amän, AXp t]msebmWv ChnsSbmWv amXmhv aIs\\mSv am[yØw AZyambn At]£n¡póXv. AhnSps¯ ]Ånbpw AhnsS kq£n¨ncn¡pó {InkvXphnsâ Imes¯ Ið`cWnIfpw ]gb hoSnsâ AhinjvS§fpw Hs¡ IïXn\\v tijw AhnsS \\Só hnip² IpÀ_m\\bnð ]s¦Sp¯p. hnhmlPohnXw \\bn¡póhÀ¡p thïn {]tXyI {]mÀY\\ \\S¯n. 5 tUmfÀ sImSp¯mð AhnsS hnhmlw \\S¯nb kÀ«n^n¡äpw e`n¡pambncpóp. R§fpsS IqsSbpÅ NneÀ Hs¡ kÀ«n^n¡äv hm§n. ChnsS It¯men¡m ]ÅnbpsS FXnÀhi¯mbn {Ko¡v HmÀ¯tUmIvkv ]Ånbpïv. AhÀ hnizkn¡póXv. B ]Ån CcpónS¯mWv Im\\mbnse IñymWw \\Só hoSncn¡póXv FómWv. temI¯nsâ Fñm`mK¯papÅ kômcnIsfbpw AhnsS Iïncpóp. 
 
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Im\\mbnð R§Ä t\\sc t]mbXv Keoenb ISð Xoc¯v h¨v {InkvXp 5 A¸hpw 2 ao\\pw hÀ²n¸n¨v kv{XoIsfbpw Ip«nIsfbpw IqSmsX A¿mbnct¯mfw BfpIÄ¡v \\ðInb Øet¯bv¡mWv. AhnsS Hcp sNdnb ]Ånbpw Dïmbncpóp. ChnSps¯ ]Ån BZyw ]WnXXv FUn 28ð Snt_dnbkvImc³ tPmk^v Fóbmfmbncpóp 614 ð t]Àjy³ ISópIbä¯nsâ Ime¯v CXv \\in¡s¸«p. t]Àjy³ ImeL«¯nð am{Xw GItZiw 300 ]ÅnIÄ hnip² \\m«nð \\in¸n¡s¸«n«pïv FómWv IW¡v. AXn\\v tijw cm{Xn Ime¯v apgph³ ao³ ]nSn¨v XfÀóv Hcp ao³ t]mepw In«msX hó Xsâ injy³amÀ¡v acn¨v DbÀóv FgptóäXn\\v tijw {]`mX `£Ww Dïm¡n sImSp¡pIbpw Xsâ IpªmSpIsf \\bn¡m³ ]t{Xmkns\\ NpaXes¸Sp¯pIbpw sNbvX sa³sa {InÌn Fó ]Ånbnte¡mWv t]mbXv. AhnsS {InkvXp {]`mX `£Ww Hcp¡n Fóv hnizkn¡pó Hcp ]mdbmWv ]ÅnbpsS AI¯v IïXv. Cu ]ÅnbpsS `mK¯v am{XamWv BfpIÄ¡v Keoenb ISente¡v Cd§m³ hgnbpÅXv. R§Ä AhnsS Cd§n apJhpw Imepw Fñmw IgpIn. ChnSps¯ ]ÅnIÄ Fñmw Xsó {^m³kn¡³ k`bpsS Iognð BWv.
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AhnsS \\nópw R§Ä t]mbXv tI¸À\\uante¡mbncpóp. {InkvXphnsâ s]mXpPohnX¯nsâ knwl`mKhpw Nnehgn¨Xv tIm¸À\\uanð Bbncpóp. 3 hÀjamWv At±l¯nsâ s]mXpPohnXw AXnð 20 amkhpw At±lw Nnehgn¨Xv tI¸À\\uanð Bbncpóp. {InkvXphnsâ AÛpX {]hÀ¯\\§Ä IqSpXepw \\SóXpw ChnsS Bbncpóp. At±l¯nsâ injy³amÀ `qcn]£hpw ChnSp¯pImcmbncpóp F¦nepw AhnSps¯ BfpIÄ At±l¯nð hnizkn¡m¯Xp sImïv At±lw Cu ]«Ws¯ i]n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. FUn 749ð `qI¼¯nð Cu ]«Ww ]qÀ®ambn \\in¨v t]mIpIbmbncpóp. 1905ð PÀ½³ BÀ¡ntbmfPnÌpImÀ \\S¯nb ]cnthjW¯nemWv Cu ]«W¯nsâ AhinjvS§Ä Isï¯nbXv.
 
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hnip² ]t{Xmknsâ hoSpw hfsc ]gb Hcp kn\\tKmKnsâ AhinjvS§fpw I^ÀWmanse ]gb ]«W¯nsâ AhinjvS§fpw AhnsS ImWmambncpóp. Inw§v tUhnUnsâ NnÓamb \\£{Xw sIm¯nb IñpIÄ kn\\ntKmKnsâ \\in¨ AhinjvS§fnð ImWmambncpóp. Cu kn\\tKmKnemWv {InkvXp P\\§sf ]Tn¸n¨Xv. {InkvXphnsâ im]w sImïmbncn¡mw Cópw I^ÀWmanð Hcp IpSpw_hpw Xmakn¡pónñ.
 
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Keoenb ISð¡cbnð Xsó DÅ Hcp tlm«enð \\nópw hnip²amb Cu ISenð \\nópw ]nSn¨v ao³ Iq«n D¨ `£Ww Ign¨Xn\\v tijw R§Ä tPmÀ±m³ \\Znbnte¡v t]mbn. ]gb \\nba¯nð Cu]vPn]vänsâ ASna¯¯nð \\nópw C{ktbð P\\Xsb c£n¨p I\\m³ tZi¯v F¯n¨ tPmjzm Cu \\Zn ISómWv IogS¡ð Bcw`n¨Xv. AXpt]mse {InkvXp tbmlóm\\nð \\nópw kv\\m\\w kzoIcn¨Xpw Cu \\Znbnð \\nópw Bbncpóp. {InkvXphnsâ kv\\m\\¯n\\v tijw Cu \\Zn {InkvXym\\nIsf kw_Ôn¨Spt¯mfw ]cnip²amb \\Zn Bbn«mWv Adnbs¸SpóXv. {InkvXphns\\ kv\\m\\w sNbvXXv sPdnt¡mbv¡v 5 ssað Ing¡pÅ tPmÀ±m³ \\Znbnð Bbncpsó¦nð R§Ä t]mbXv tPmÀ±m³ \\ZnbpsS asämcp `mKt¯¡mbncpóp. ^m. F{_lmw R§fpsS kwL§sf Fñmw AhnsS kv\\m\\w sN¿n¨p.
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]nóoSv R§fpsS bm{X {InkvXp aebnse {]kwKw \\S¯nb auïv Hm^v _oänäqUnte¡mbncpóp. temI Ncn{Xs¯ {InkvXphn\\v tijhpw {InkvXphn\\v ap³]pw Fóv Iodnapdn¡phm³ Hcp ]s£ {]tNmZ\\ambXv Cu aebnse {]kwKw Bbncn¡mw. Aóp hsc I®n\\v I®v Fó {Iaw \\ne \\nóncpó AhØbnð \\nópw  £amioe³ `qan kz´am¡pw, AXpt]mse Xsó Hcp sNInSn\\n«v ASn¡póh\\v adp IcWw ImWn¨v sImSp¡Ww Fóo Bib§Ä temI¯n\\v \\ðInbXv Cu aebnð h¨mbncpóp. Cu BibamWv almßmKmÔnsbbpw amÀ«n³ eqXÀ Inw§ns\\bpw, F{_lmw en¦s\\bpw, aZÀXtcksbbpw, s\\ðk¬ atÞesbbpw Fñmw \\bn¨Xv. AhnsS Øm]n¨n«pÅ ]Ånbnð Fñmhcpw Ibdn {]mÀ°n¨Xn\\v tijw tPm¬t]mÄ amÀ¸m¸ ]Ån kµÀin¨t¸mÄ \\ðInb k½m\\§Ä Hs¡ IïXn\\v tijw Keoenb ISenð t_m«n§v \\S¯póXn\\mbn ]pds¸«p. 

32 ssað hnkvXrXnbpÅ Keoenb ISemWv C{ktbensebpw tPmÀ±m\\nsebpw {][m\\amb ip² Pe XSmIw. ChnsS \\nópamWv C{ktbenð apgph³ Irjnbv¡pw IpSn shůn\\pw shÅw sImïv t]mIpóXv. 1967ð \\Só 6 Znhkw \\Só bp²¯nð Cu {]tZiw tPmÀ±m\\nð \\nópw C{ktbð ]nSns¨Sp¯XmWv. C{ktbens\\ kw_Ôn¨Spt¯mfw hfsc X{´ {][m\\amb taJebmWv Cu {]tZiw. C{ktbð tZiob ]XmItbmsSm¸w C´ybpsS tZiob ]XmI IqSn DbÀ¯n tZiob Km\\hpw Be]n¨v sImïmWv t_m«nð bm{X Xncn¨Xv Hcp aWn¡qÀ t_m«pbm{X \\ñ Hcp A\\p`hw Bbncpóp. ]Ið 40 Un{Kn NqSv BbncpóXv sImïv Fñmhcpw Xsó £oWnXÀ Bbncpóp. t_m«n§n\\v tijw R§Ä tlm«enð Xncns¨¯n `£Ww Ign¨v InSópd§n.

XpScpw....

Readers Comments

ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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