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CSp¡nbnð Iï blqZ\\pw C{ktbenð Iï blqZ\\pwþ C{ktbð bm{X 4

Britishmalayali
tSmw tPmkv XSnbw¼mSv

 GItZiw Hcp ]Xn\\ôv hÀj§Ä¡v ap³]v CSp¡nbnse sNdptXmWnbnð DÅ tÌm¬GPv tlm«ensâ ap³]nð Rm\\pw Fsâ kplr¯v cmPp tkhydpw IqSn \\nð¡pt¼mÄ C´y kµÀin¡m³ hó Hcp blqZs\\ ]cnNbs¸Sm³ CSbmbn. Aóv C{ktbepw ]meÌbn\\pw X½nð Xpdó bp²w \\S¡pó kabw Bbncpóp. Rm³ Aht\\mSv C{ktbense Fñm blqZ³amÀ¡pw anenädn s{Sbv\\nwKv \\nÀ_ÔamWtñm. At¸mÄ \\obpw ]«mf¡mc³ Bbncn¡patñm, AXpsImïv \\o ChnsS \\nð¡mX C{ktbenð t]mbn \\nsâ cmPy¯n\\v thïn bp²w sN¿m³ Fóv shdpsX Xami cqt]W ]dªp. At¸mÄ Ah³ ]dªp. Fsâ \\mSv F´ns\\bpw t\\cnSm³ Icp¯pÅ \\mSmWv. AhÀ AXv ssIImcyw sNbvXv sImÅpw. AtXmsSm¸w Ah³ ]dªp. R§Ä Hcp cmPyw CñmsX temIw apgph³ AeªXn\\v tijw R§Ä¡v Hcp cmPyw Dïm¡m³ \\n§Ä klmbn¨nñ. F´n\\v R§fpsS Hcp Fw¼kn Xpd¡m³ IgnªXv t]mepw \\cwknwldmhphnsâ Ime¯mWv Fóv. Ah³ ]dªXv Rm³ Ct¸mgpw HmÀ¡póp.

Cu bm{Xbnð ]gb sPdpiteansâ CS\\mgnIfnð D´p hïnbnð DW§nb ]g§Ä hnð¡pó Hcp blqZs\\ Iït¸mÄ Ah³ tNmZn¨p. \\n§Ä sIm¨nbnð \\nópw BtWm?. AsX Fóp ]dªt¸mÄ Ah\\v hfsc kt´mjw Aht\\mSv Rm³ tNmZn¨p. Cdmsâ {]knUâv Al½Zv \\nPmZv ]dªn«pïtñm. C{ktbð Fó cmPyw temI `q]S¯nse If¦s¸« NnÓv\\amWv. AXv `q]S¯nð \\nópw ambn¨v Ifbpsaóv. AXv am{Xañ Cdm³ Cóv BWh iàn Bbn amdn sImïncn¡póp. \\n§Ä Cdms\\ B{Ian¡psaópw tIÄ¡póp. At¸mÄ Ah³ ]dªp. R§Ä Ahs\\ ssIImcyw sN¿pI Xsó sN¿pw. hfsc \\nÝb ZmÀUyw \\ndª i_vZw BWv Ah\\nð \\nópw ]pd¯v hóXv. C{ktbð FóXv Hmtcm blqZsâbpw Pohsâbpw, cà¯nsâbpw `mKamWv FómWv Cu cïp hyànIfpsSbpw hm¡pIfnð \\nópw a\\ÊnembXv. AXn\\v ImcWw Ah³ A\\p`hn¨ {IqcXIfpsS \\oï Ncn{XamWv.
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R§Ä Keoenbmbnse _obmän«yqUv tlm«ent\\mSv Cóv hnS]dbpIbmWv. cmhnse 6 aWn¡v Xsó km[\\§Ä Fñmw ]m¡v sNbvXp. t{_¡v ^mÌpw Ign¨v AhnS \\nópw ]pds¸«p. \\ñ `£Whpw Xmak kuIcyhpw XóXn\\pw AhtcmSv Fñmw \\µn ]dªv tlm«ensâ apä¯v \\nóv Hcn¡ð IqSn Keoenb ISepw _obmän«yqUv ]Ånbpw IïXn\\v tijw BWv _Êv ]pds¸«Xv.

tbip ]t{XmÊnsâbpw tbmlómsâbpw bmt¡m_nsâbpw ap³]nð cq]m´cs¸SpIbpw AhnsS Genbmhpw tamibpw Aht\\mSv kwkmcn¡pIbpw sNbvXp Fóp ss__nÄ ]dbpó St_mÀ aebntebv¡mWv R§Ä t]mbXv. kap{Z \\nc¸nð \\nópw 1900 ASn Dbc¯nð ØnXn sN¿pó Cu ae Keoenbmbnse Gähpw Nnt{Xm]a kpµcamb ae FómWv Adnbs¸SpóXv. AXn\\v D]cn ChnsS hfsc bp² X{´ {][m\\ taJe IqSnbmWv. ImcWw ChnsS \\nóp t\\m¡nbmð hfsc AIsebpÅ i{Xphnsâ Ne\\§Ät]mepw Adnbm³ Ignbpw. A{X Dbc¯nemWv Cu ae \\nðIpóXv.
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_Êv Cu ae Ibdm³ XpS§nbt¸mÄ ASnamenbnð \\nópw aqómdntebv¡v t]mIpóXv t]msebmWv tXmónbXv. aebpsS ]IpXn `mKw sNó¸w _Êv AhnsS ]mÀ¡v sNbvXp. AXn\\v tijw sNdnb hml\\§fnð BWv R§sf ae apIfnð F¯n¨Xv. ImcWw _Êv A{Xbpw henb Ip¯s\\bpff ae Ibdm³ ]cym]vXambncpónñ.

ae apIfnð \\nÀ½n¨ncn¡pó ]ÅnbpsS BįmcbnemWv {InkvXp cq]m´cs¸«p Fóp hnizkn¡pó ]md IïXv. {][m\\ ]ÅnbpsS cïv hi¯mbn cïv sNdnb ]ÅnIÄ IqSn Dïv. AXnð Hóv tamibpsSbpw cïmat¯Xv GenbmbpsSbpw BWv. R§fpsS Aós¯ hnip² _en Cu ]Ånbnð h¨mbncpóp. ^m. F{_lmw hnip² _en AÀ¸n¨p. ]ÅnbpsS Npäpw hfsc at\\mlcambn Ae¦cn¨ncn¡pó ]qt´m«w I®n\\v IpfnÀ½ ]IcpóXmbncpóp.

Cu ]Ånbpw Ipcniv bp²¡mcpsS Ime¯v ]WnXncpóXmbncpóp Fómð apÉow ImeL«¯nð \\in¡s¸«p. ]nóoSv ]gb ]ÅnbpsS AhinjvS§Ä Isï¯n. 1924ð ]pXnb ]Ån ]WnbpIbmWv sNbvXXv.
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Smt_mÀ aebnð \\nópw R§Ä t]mbXv sPdnt¡mbntebv¡mbncpóp. temI¯v Cóphsc Isï¯nbncn¡póXnð Gähpw ]g¡w sNó ]«Ww FómWv sPdnt¡m Adnbs¸SpóXv. 10000 _n. kn. apXð Cu ]«Ww Dïmbncpóp FómWv Ncn{Xw ]dbpóXv. _n. kn. 13#m#w \\qämïnemWv C{ktbenbÀ sPdnt¡m aXnð XIÀ¯v tPmjzmbpsS t\\XrXz¯nð Im\\m³Imsc Iogvs¸Sp¯n hmKvZ¯ `qanbntebv¡v {]thin¨Xv. AXpt]mse sPdnt¡mbnð h¨mWv {InkvXp AÔ\\v ImgvN \\ðInbXv. ChnsSbmWv kt¡hqkv IÀ¯mhv t]mIpó hgnbnð IÀ¯mhns\\ ImWpóXn\\v thïn ssk¡mtamÀ Fó ac¯nð Ibdn CcpóXv. A¯cw ac§Ä AhnsS Ct¸mgpw ImWmw. sPdnt¡m ]¨¡dnbpsSbpw ]g§fpsSbpw \\mSv Fóp IqSn Adnbs¸Spópïv. ChnSps¯ Cu´¸gw temI¯nse Gähpw cpNnIcamb Cu´¸gw FómWv ]dbpóXv. PqUnbm acp`qanbnse ]¨¸v IqSnbmWv sPdnt¡m.

t]mb hgnbnð hfsc at\\mlcamb Cu´¸\\t¯m«§Ä ImWmambncpóp. PqUnbm acp`qansb ]¨ B¡póXnsâ `mKambn Cu´¸\\ tXm«§Ä h¨v ]nSn¸n¨v acp`qan a\\pjy\\v Xmak tbmKyam¡n sImïncn¡pIbmWv. sPdnt¡m ]eÌosâ `mKamWv. ]eÌo³ AtXmdnänbmWv ChnS `cn¡póXv. ChnSps¯ tdmUpIfpw {Sm^n¡pw C{ktbens\\ At]£n¨v hfsc tamiamWv.
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sPdnt¡mbnð \\nópw R§Ä {InkvXp sNIp¯m\\mð ]co£n¡s¸« PqUnbm acp`qanbnte PqUnb³ lnñnte¡mWv t]mbXv. {InkvXp ]co£n¡s¸«p Fóp hnizkn¡pó aebntebv¡v t]mIm³ DÅ GI amÀ¤w tdm¸v thbmWv AXn\\v H¯ncn kabw FSp¡pw FópÅXv sImïv AhnsS t]mIm³ Ignªnñ. AIse \\nóv ImWm³ am{Xta IgnbpIbpÅq. {InkvXp X]Êncpó Kpl Cóv {Ko¡v HmÀ¯tUmIvkv k`bpsS hI B{iaamWv. 45% Un{Kn NqSv A\\p`hs¸«ncpóXpsImïv F{Xbpw s]s«óv _Ênð Xncn¨v Ibdm³ BWv B{Kln¨Xv. ChnSps¯ ISbnð \\nópw Fñmhcpw Cu´¸ghpw CXc ]g hÀ¤§fpw hm§n.
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ChnsS \\nópw R§Ä t\\sc t]mbXv sUUv kobntebv¡mWv. Cu ISenð Hcp PohPme§fpw Pohn¡m¯Xv sImïmWv CXns\\ sUUv ko Fódnbs¸Sm³ ImcWw. [mXpehW§Ä sImïv A\\p{KloXamb Cu ISenð \\nópw FSp¡pó [mXp ehW§Ä sImïv Ht«sd kuµcy hÀ²I hkvXp¡Ä C{ktbð I¼\\nIÄ Dð¸mZn¸n¡pópïv. km[mcW ISð Pe¯nð 4. 6% L\\amsW¦nð sUUv kobnse Pe¯n\\v 26% L\\amWv DÅXv. AXpt]mse D¸nsâ Afhpw km[mcW Pet¯¡mfpw 6 Cc«nbmWv. 360 kvIzbÀ ssað Npäfhnð InS¡pó Cu ISenð ap§n acn¡pw Fóp t]Snt¡ï. apIfnð ^vtfm«v sNbvXp InS¡pIbpÅq. [mXpehW§ð sImïv {Kmhnän IqSnb Pew BbXv sImïpw Cu shůnð Cd§n InSómð sXmen¸pd¯pÅ tcmK§Ä amdn In«mdpapïv. ]s£ Að¸w shÅw I®nð t]mbmð AÊlo\\amb \\oäð A\\p`hs¸Spw ]nóoSv ip²Pew D]tbmKn¨v IgpInbmð am{Xta I®v Xpd¡m³ IgnbpIbpÅq. ip² Pe ss]¸pIÄ ISð Icbnð Xsó {IaoIcn¨n«pïv. ISð shůnð Cd§n¡nS¡póhÀ ASnbnð \\nópw sNfn hmcn icoc¯v s]mXnbpóXv ImWmambncpóp. AXpt]mse sNfn Ip¸nbnð tiJcn¡póXpw ImWmambncpóp. R§Ä ISenð Ipfn Ignªv D]tbmKn¨ hkv{X§Ä AhnsS Dt]£n¨p.
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sUUv kobnð \\nópw R§Ä Jpamd³ ImWpóXn\\v thïn bm{X Xncn¨p. Jpamd³ Fóp ]dbpóXv sUUv kotbmSv tNÀóv InS¡pó Hcp sNdnb {Kmaambncpóp. sPdpiteanse IepjnXamb PohnX kmlNcy§fnð \\nópw thdn«v {]mÀ°\\bpw BßobXbpw Bbn Hcp Xcw k\\ymk PohnXw \\bn¨ Hcp kwLw BfpIÄ _n. kn. 31  ð ChnsS Xmakw Bcw`n¨p. AhcpsS B{iaw `qan Ipep¡¯nð \\in¨p t]mbn. F. Un. 30ð hoïpw ]p\\À \\nÀ½n¨v AhÀ AhnsS kmXznI PohnXw \\bn¨p. AhcpsS Nn´Ifpw ZÀi\\§fpw {]tXyI Xcw eXdnð FgpXn IpS¯nð C«v kq£n¨ncpóp. blqZ Iem]w ASn¨aÀ¯m³ ssSsdknsâ t\\XrXz¯nð hó tdma³ BÀan Cu {iahpw ChnSps¯ a\\pjyscbpw hIhcp¯n. AhÀ Isï¯nb Bßob ZÀi\\§Ä BWv FgpXn a¬IpS¯nð B¡n Kplbnð kq£n¨ncn¡póXv.
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1947ð Xsâ \\jvSs¸« BSns\\ At\\zjn¨v Cu KplbpsS ASp¯v sNó B«nSb³ apl½Zv skeo_v Cu Kplbntebv¡v Iñp hens¨dnªt¸mÄ Dïmb i_vZw sNIp¯mtâXmWv Fóp hnNmcn¨v `bs¸« t]mbn. F¦nepw ]nsä Znhkw A¦nfns\\bpw Iq«n apl½Zv Cu KplIÄ ]cntim[n¨t¸mÄ AhnsS \\nópw \\mev a¬IpS§Ä In«n AXnð \\nópw lo{_phnð FgpXn kq£n¨ncpó NpcpfpIÄ BWv In«nbXv. kzÀ®amWv Fóp hnNmcn¨v IpS§Ä Xpdó AhÀ \\ncmicmbn. AhÀ¡v In«nb NmhpISð NpcpfpIÄ Fódnbs¸Spó Cu al¯mb tiJcW¯nsâ hne AdnbnñmsX AhÀ CXv Hcp kndnb³ {InkvXym\\n¡v sNdnb hnebv¡v hnäp. At±lw AXv Aóv sPdpiteanð Xmakn¨ncpó kndnb³ k`bpsS sa{Xmt¸meo¯s\\ ImWn¡pIbpw sa{Xmt¸men¯ AXv hm§n Atacn¡bnð sImïv t]mbn. CXv 250000 tUmfdn\\v blqZ\\mb s{]m^kÀ bnKð tbZn³ hm§n. Cóv C{ktbense ]gbIme ss__nÄ DÄs]sSbpÅ ssIs¿gp¯pIÄ kq£n¨n«pÅ C{ktbð ayqknb¯nð CXv kq£n¨n«pïv. ]nóoSv Jpadm\\nð \\S¯nb BÀ¡ntbmfPn¡ð ]T\\¯nð 900 NpcpfpIfpw  ]gb {Kma¯nsâ AhinjvS§fpw Isï¯pIbpw sNbvXp.
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Jpadm\\nð \\nópw R§Ä sPdpiteanð IqSn t_Xvetlantebv¡v t]mbn. sPdpiteansâ IhmS¯nð ]«mf sN¡v t]mÌv Dïmbncpóp. R§fpsS s{Us#hÀ Cw¥ïnð \\nópÅhcmWv bm{X¡mÀ Fóp ]dªt¸mÄ Xsó s]mbvs¡mÅm³ ]dªp. sPdpiteanð \\nópw ]meÌbnsâ IognepÅ t_Xvetlansebv¡p t]mIWsa¦nð ]meÌbn\\pw C{ktbepw Bbn thÀXncn¨ncn¡pó aXnð ISóv thWw t]mIm³. AhnsSbpw ]«mf sN¡v t]mÌpIÄ ISóv thWw t]mIm³. sN¡v t]mÌpIfnð F¯póXn\\v ap³]v ssKUv ]dªncpóp \\ni_vZambn Ccn¡Wsaópw t^mt«m FSp¡cpsXópw. ChnSps¯ sN¡v t]mÌnð Hóv cïv t]cpsS ]mkvt]mÀ«v ]cntim[n¨ ]«mf¡mc³ tNmZn¨p. \\n§Ä Cw¥ïnð FhnsS \\nómWv hcpósXóv. R§Ä ]dªp enhÀ]qfnð \\nópw Fóv. Rm³ \\n§fpsS ^m³ Añ amôÌÀ bqssWäUntâXmWv Fóp ]dªv Nncn¨p sImïv B ]«mf¡mc³ aS§n t]mbn.
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ChnSps¯ aXnenð Ht«sd kmlnXyImc³amÀ ]ekvXo³ P\\XbpsS kacs¯ ]n´pW¨v AhcpsS A`n{]mb§Ä FgpXn h¨n«pïv. R§Ä t_Xvetlanse tlm«enð F¯n `£Whpw Ign¨v InSópd§n. ChnSps¯ tlm«epw `£Whpw hfsc \\ómbncpóp.
 
XpScpw..

 

Readers Comments

ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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