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`mjm]pWyw k¨nZm\\µw

Britishmalayali
apcptIjv ]\\bd

s{]m^ÊÀ sI k¨nZm\\µ³ kmdpambn \\S¯nb A`napJw, bp Syp_nte¡v A]v temUv sNbvXv, Rm³ Cu teJ\\w FgpXnsImïncn¡pt¼mÄ 2450 t]cnð IqSpXð IïXmbn a\\knem¡póp. \\ñXv Xsó BWv Cu ØnXn hnhc IW¡v. kt´mjIcw, {]Xo£m \\nÀ`cw Fsóms¡ \\ma hntijW§Ä tNÀ¯p F\\n¡v Cu {]XnIcWs¯ hnfn¡m³ Bhpw. ]s£ AXpam{Xw sImïv, PohnX Btbm[\\hpw Bbn _Ôs¸«p adp\\m«nð  hóp s]«v, ssZ\\w Zn\\w Fó h®w amdn adnbpó hn\\nab \\nc¡pIÄ¡\\pkcn¨v kz´w kz]v\\§fpsS \\ndhpw cq]hpw A\\pkyqXw amän FgpXphm³ hn[n¡s¸«ncn¡pó, KrlmXpc abqJ§fpsS Ip¯I apXemfn Bb aebmfn a\\Ênsâ `mjtbmSpÅ {]mYanI D¯chmZnXzw \\ndthäs¸«p Ignªp Fóv IcpXm³ BIptam? Cñ Fó Fsâ tXmóemWv Cu teJ\\¯n\\p B[mcw Fóv BZyta khn\\bw ]dªp h¨psImÅs«. 

kwLIme kmlnXy IrXnIfpsS amkvac kzm[o\\¯nð \\nóv ]Sn ]Sn Bbn kzbw thÀ s]Sp¯nb aebmf hmWn Xsâ X\\Xmb kzXw Isï¯póXv ]Xn\\mdmw \\qämïnð `mjm ]nXmhv Bb Xpô¯v cmam\\pP³ Fgp¯Ñ³ AhÄ¡mbn XanÄ hs«gp¯v k{¼Zmb¯nð \\nóv tamN\\w sImSp¯psImïv X\\Xp {KÙ en]n cq]s¸Sp¯pótXmSv IqSn BWtñm. Fgp¯¨³ Xsâ DZya§fnð AhKlambn ]peÀ¯nbncpó ZoÀL ho£Ww Hóv sImïv am{XamWv kam´cambn \\o§nbncpó cïp `mjm kcWnIÄ Bb Bcy kmlnXy imJnbnse Fópw Xfncmbn ]cnekn¡pó]Z k¼¯nsâ ]pWyhpw aueoIX sImïv atlmóXw Bbn ]cnekn¨ncpó XanÄ {ZmhnU kmlnXy¯nsâ kwKoX `wKnbpw kaw tNÀ¯v aebmf hmWnsb IqSpXð tNtXmlcn B¡n Nabv¡m³ At±l¯n\\v km²yambXv. Bcy {ZmhnU i_vZ kap¨bw apgph³ ImXð tNmÀópt]mImsX ]p\\À hncNn¡m³ {]m]vXamb hn[w Gähpw IqSpXð A£c§Ä sImïv A\\p{KloXw Bb `mcX `mj Bbn aebmfw Dcp¯ncnªp hóXnsâ ImcWhpw CXv Xsó BIWw. AXv am{Xañ GsXmcp temI `mjbnsebpw i_vZ, D¨mcW am{Xm kt¦X§sf Xsâ A£c k¼¯nsâ _mlpeyw sImïv KpW\\nehmcw tNmÀópt]mImsX ]p\\À krjvSn¡phm\\pw AXneqsS ]Z k¼¯n\\p hen¸w Iq«phm\\pw aebmf¯n\\p Fópw {]bmkw Dïmbn«nñ.

Fgp¯¨³ cq]s¸Sp¯nb Infn¸m«v {]Øm\\hpw `ànbpsS ]ôkmcbnð s]mXnªp s]mXpP\\¯n\\v \\ðInb A[ymß cmambWw, alm`mcXw XpS§nb IrXnIfpw tIctfmð¸¯n tIcf \\mSIw Fón§s\\bpÅ krjvSnIfpw `mjsb BÀÖnX hocyt¯msS Du«n hfÀ¯pI Xsó sNbvXp. ]nóoSp Ct§m«v Imem Ime§fnð Pohn¨ncpó almcYòmÀ Bb IhnIfpw kmlnXyImc³amcpw anj\\dn {]hÀ¯Icpw AS¡apÅ `mjm kvt\\lnIfpw B \\ò ]mc¼cyw Bbn IcpXn sImïv \\S¡pIbpw s\\tôän emfn¡pIbpw sNbvXXnsâ ^eambn IqSn BWv \\½psS sIm¨p aebmfw P\\XXn DÅ temI tImWpIfnð Fñmw Adnbs¸Spó `mj Bbn amdnbXpw temI `mj kmlnXy kw`mh\\Isf atäsXmcp `mjbpw Xpdó a\\tÊmsS kzoIcn¡póXnt\\¡mÄ ]XnòS§v Kucht¯msS aebmfw kzoIcn¨p ]cnt]mjn¨p t]mcpóXpw. Fómð A\\pZn\\w hfcpó aebmf kmlnXy imJbpsS Øqe Km{Xw ]cnKWn¡pt¼mÄ Cu hn\\nabw Xptemw GI Znibnð DÅ Hótñ Fsó\\n¡p kwibw Dïv.

1887ð IpµeXbpw 1889ð CµpteJbpw P\\n¡póXn\\p hfsc apt¼ Xsó BwKteb KZy kmlnXy¯nse ap¯pIÄ ]cn`mjm cq]¯nð tIcf¯nð DS\\ofw {]Nmchpw P\\k½Xnbpw t\\Snbncpóp. N´ptat\\msâ CµpteJ Xsó Cw¥ojv t\\mhð kt¦X¯nsâ N«¡qSv ]n´pSÀóv hncNn¡s]« IrXnbmWv. ImenIambn \\ne \\nóncpó ^yqUð k{¼Zmb¯nsâ PoÀ® Nn{Xhpw Nnehn`mKw BfpIfnð hóp s]«v t]mb kmwkvImcnI A]Nbhpw hnjbam¡nb B t\\mhð ]s£  A¡mes¯ kmapZmbnI kmwkvImcnI t`mjvIns\\ Xpdóp Im«pIbpw amdphm³ thïn Ahbv¡v t\\sc Xncn¨ ZÀ¸Ww Bbn hÀ¯n¡pIbpw sNbvXp FóXv sImïv {KÙImcsâ kmaqlnI {]Xn_²X shfnhm¡pó Hómbn amdn. 1891 ð ko ho cma³ ]nÅbpsS amÀ¯mÞ hÀ½ ]pd¯phótXmsS aebmf¯nð Ncn{X t\\mhmepIfpsS Imew Bcw`n¡pI Bbn.

1913 ð hó [À½ cmPbpw 1917 \\p tijw hó cma cmPm _lmZqÀ cïp `mK§fpw B \\Shgn HópIqSn  Dd¸phcp¯n Ae¦cn¨p. XpSÀót§m«v Fñm hn`mK§fnepw s]Spó kmaqlnIw, cmjv{Sobw, Ipämt\\zjWw, {]Wbw, t\\mhepIÄ aebmf `mjbnð P\\n¡pIbpw BbXv Cw¥ojv t]mse temI `mjtbmfw `chXzw t]mó k¼¯v aebmf kmlnXnbnð Dïm¡pIbpw sNbvXp. IcqÀ XpS§nb al¯p¡Ä IYbnepw Cw¥ojv tdmamânIv  ]p\\ÀP\\ntbmSp tNÀóv \\ap¡pïmbn hó H«\\h[n  IhnIfpw _u[nIambn `mjsb kao]n¡pIbpw `mjbv¡pÅ kpJ NnInÕ Fó h®w teJ\\§fpw ]T\\§fpw  FgpXpIbpw sNbvX ]ÞnXcpsS A{im´ ]cn{iahpw sImïv aebfw _mey¯nð \\nóv "\\hXmcpWyw hóp \\mÄ tXmdpw hfcpó\' Hcp kpµcmwKn Bbn XoÀóp. B\\pImenIambn B \\ntbmKw GsäSp¯p \\S¯n t]mcpóhÀ BWv k¡dnbbpw k¨nZm\\µ\\pw DÄs¸sS DÅhÀ.
 
`mjbpsS AwK emhWy¯n\\p tIm¸v Iq«póXnð \\½psS Ne¨n{X Km\\ imJ hfÀ¯nb ]¦pw hnkvacn¨p IqSm. kmlnXy kpµchpw AÀ°  k¼pjvShpw Bb F{X am{Xw cN\\IfmWv kwKoX `wKn sImïv {ihW kpµcw IqSn Bbn \\ap¡v apónð AhXcn¨p A\\p{Kln¨p t]móXv. \\½psS {]t£]W am[yaw AXn\\p sImSp¯ kw`mh\\bpw hepXmWv. ImXS¸n¡pó ISp¯ i_vZ§fpsSbpw GXnsâ hoNn Fóv Xncn¨dnbm³ h¿m¯ hn[w k½n{iW {]hoWyw sImïv I¼yq«dnð ]Sps¯Sp¯p {]XnZn\\w Fóh®w AhXcn¡pó Aev¸mbpÊpIÄ Bb Km\\§fpsS {]fb¯n\\nSbnepw t\\cs¯ ]dª ap¯pIÄ Nncw PohnIfmbn Pzen¨p \\nóv shÅn shfn¨w hnXdn  kpa\\ÊpIfpsS Nn´bpw `mh\\sbbpw F¡mehpw Dt¯Pn¸n¡póXv AhbpsS `mj ]pWyw IqSn sImïv Xsó Asñ? \\nÊwibw \\ap¡v \' AsX \' Fóv ]dbm\\mhpw Fsó\\n¡p Dd¸pïv.

Fsó t]mse PohnX¯nð a²y  hbÊv ]nón« Hcp icmicn tIcfobs\\, Ahsâ Iuamc bphXz Ime L«§fnð sshbànIhpw kmaqlnIhpw Bb `mjm kwthZ\\ kwhmZ§fnð CSs]«p \\bcq]oIcW¯n\\v hsc t{]cn¸n¡póXn\\pw InfnhmXnð t]mse Xpdóp In«pó Hcp DuÀÖ ZmbIamb hmXmb\\¯neqsS temI ¢mÊn¡pIÄ adªncn¡pó hniz kmlnXy kap{Zm´À `mK§fnte¡v DÄhnfnbpsS {]mW hmbq tiJchpambn ap§mw Ipgnbn«v ]cXn \\Sóp hnkvabw sImÅm\\pw t{]cn¸n¨ \\nÀ®mbI hkvXpXIfnð, A¼e ]d¼pIfnð Act§dn km[mcW P\\ kaqls¯ B\\µ \\nÀhrXnbnð AdmSn¨ IYm{]kwK Iemcq]hpw \\mSI§fpw hfsc sNdpXñm¯ ]¦p XsóbmWv hln¨n«pÅXv. B AÀY¯nð BbhIÄ aebmf¯n\\pw AhfpsS BtcmKy ]cnc£¡pw hln¨ ]¦p hnkvacn¨p IqSm Xsó. Gsd thZ\\mP\\Iamb kXyw Cu hI Iem cq]§Ä Cóv t\\cnSpó ISp¯ hwi \\mi `ojWn Xsó BWv.

kqcy\\v XmsgbpÅ F´v Imcyhpw Ime N{I¯n³s# {]bmW¯n\\p H¸w ]cnWma§Ä¡v hnt[bamhpI A\\ntj²yw Bb kXyw am{XamWtñm. aebmf `mjbpw CXn\\p hn`nóañ. ]cnWmaw ]s£ cïp ZniIfnte¡pw BImw. hfÀ¨ Bbpw XfÀ¨ Bbpw. A\\pZn\\w hfÀóp hnIkn¨p hó _nkn\\kv Iemcq]§Ä¡pw AhIÄ¡v kwt{]jW am[yaw  AXv s]mXptaJe Bbmepw kzImcy Nm\\ð taJe Bbmepw  \\ðIpó AXnÀ hn« t{]mÕml\\hpw `mjsb hfÀ¯pI BtWm XfÀ¯pI BtWm Fóv Nn´nt¡ï kabw AXn{Ian¨ncn¡póp. Ir{Xnaw Bbn cpNn tNÀ¯v hnf¼pó `£Ww hnthNn¨p cpNn¡m³ hI Xncnhv adóp t]mb Hcp Hcp s{]s#adn kvIqÄ IpkrXn Iq«¯n\\p km[yamIWw Fónñ. B adhnsb A\\p{Klambn FSp¯psImïp \\mWbw am{Xw, Ipanªp IqSpó AXnsâ Inep¡w am{Xw, e£yw h¨psImïv hnj LSI§Ä ap³ \\nÝbn¨ tNcph {]Imcw Iq«n¡eÀ¯n hnf¼n Xcpó Iemcq]§Ä `mjbpsS Poh \\Zn¡p ]Icpó achn¸v XcWw sNbvXp aptóm«p \\bn¡m\\pÅ Ffnb {ia§fnð sNdpXv Añm¯XmWv k¨nZm\\µ³ kmdns\\ t]mse DÅ BfpIÄ kz\\ntbmKw Bbn FSp¯ncn¡póXv. B AÀY¯nð Nn´n¡pwt]mgmWv At±lhpambpÅ A`napJw ImWpóXn\\p kabw sNehgn¡pó aebmfnbpsS a\\Ênð Dd§n InS¡pó Hcp P\\nXI t{]cW  Xncn¨dnbpóXpw.

Nm\\ð  dnbmenän tjmIfpw AhbpsS AhXmcIcpw AS§pó hfsc henb kzm[o\\w kaql¯nð sNep¯m³ Ignbpó Hcp sNdp hn`mKw Dïm¡n Xóncn¡pó anYym t_m[¯nsâ ]nSnbnð BWv Ipsdsb¦nepw \\½psS ]pXnb Xeapd Fóv Rm³ IcpXpóp. BwKteb `mjsbtbm AXnsâ alXzs¯tbm Añ Rm³ {]Xn¡q«nð B¡póXv. aebmfhpw Cw¥ojpw AñmsX cïn\\pw eÖbpw PpKp]vkbpw am{Xw Dfhm¡pó Hcp Pmc k´Xnbmb kam´c `mj \\½psS CSbnð hfÀóp hcpópïv. AXnsâ kzm[o\\w B[p\\nIXbpsS ]cnthjw t]mse \\ne\\nð¡póp. thïXnð A[nIw hen¸apÅ ASnhkv{Xw hen¨p Ibän tImcn sNmcnbpó agb¯v ]pkvXI sI«p Xebnð h¨v AkzØXtbmsS \\S¡pó t]mse AhXmcI tPmen sN¿pó _nw_§Ä AdnbmsX F¦nepw \\½psS Ipªp§fpsS a\\Ênð amXrIIfmbn CSw ]nSn¨p t]mcpóp. 

`qcn ]£§fnð Hcp]s£ CXv kw`hn¡pónñmbncn¡mw. F¦nepw Hcp thZ\\n¸n¡pó \\yq\\ ]£w \\ap¡nSbnð hfÀóp hcpópïv. Ahsc Xncp¯póXn\\pw t\\À hgn \\S¯póXn\\pw \\aps¡ñmw \\ntj[n¨p IqSm¯ D¯chmZnXzw Dïv. AXn\\mbn aebmf `mjsb X\\Xp Xdhm«nð ]mc¼cy s]cpatbmsS IfnbmSm³ {]m]vXam¡pó Hcp ho£Whpw kao]\\ kwthZ\\hpw \\ap¡v Hmtcmcp¯À¡pw DïmIWw. \\½psS Ipªp§Ä¡v aebmfw Adnbnñ Fóv ]dbpóXv \\ap¡v A]am\\w BsWó t_m[w \\ap¡pw aebmfnbpsS a¡fmb X§Ä¡p aebmfw Adnbnñ FóXv A£´hyw Bb A]cm[w BsWó t_m[w AhÀ¡pw DïmhWw. \\½psS CSbnð {]hÀ¯n¨p sImïncn¡pó H«\\h[n Iq«mbvaIfpw kwLS\\Ifpw Cu Imcyw X§fpsS APïbnð DÄs¸Sp¯n \\nbXamb {]hÀ¯\\ ]ÙmhpIÄ Xocpam\\n¨pd¨p IÀt½mòpJw BIWw FómWv F\\n¡v At]£n¡phm³ DÅXv. AXn\\pÅ Dt¯PI te]\\w BIWw XpS¡¯nð {]Xn]mZn¨ A`napJhpw AXpt]msebpÅ Imcy§fpw.

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ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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