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{_o«n-jp-ImÀ C´ysb sImÅ-b-Sn-t¨m? i-in X-cq-cn-\v a-dp]Sn

Britishmalayali
t]mÄ aWvUew

{_o«n-jp-ImÀ C´ysb sImÅ-b-Snt¨m? AtXm Ató hsc temI-`q-]-S-¯nð  Cñm-Xn-cpó C´ysbó P\m[n]Xy cmPy-¯n\v cq]w \ðIn kÀÆ cwK-§-fnepw AXn\v ià-amb ASn-¯d CSp-I-bm-bn-cptóm sNbvXXv? Nn´n-t¡-ïn-bn-cn-¡p-óp.

iin XcqÀ C´y-bnse Gähpw henb cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n-bpsS DbÀó t\Xmhpw Fw]nbp-amWv. At±lw Fóñ Hcp \memw InS cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nbpsS DbÀó t\Xmhp t]mepw ]d-bpó kXyhpw Ak-Xyhpw sXäpw icnbpw Fñm AÔ-ambn ssI¿-Sn-¨w-Ko-Icn¡phm³ e£-¡-W-¡n-\v "Bcm-[-IÀ' ImWpw. At±-l-¯n-\m-Is« Zi-e-£-¡-W-¡n\v Bcm-[-Icpw AWn-Ifpw ImWpw. C§-s\-bpÅ Hcp cmjv{Sob t\Xmhnsâ ap¼nð C´y-bnse Hcp km[m-cW ]uc-\mb Rm³ Hóp-a-ñ. F¦nepw Nne kXy-§Ä Xpdóp ]d-bmsX h¿. sImÅ Fó ]Z-¯nsâ hn]p-e-amb AÀ°-sa-´v? apl-½Zv tKmdnbpw Kkv\nbpw C´y-bnð sNbvXXv sImÅ Bbn-cp-óp. AhÀ \K-c-§fpw {Kma-§fpw Nps«-cn-¨p. hoSp hoSm-´cw Ib-dn- \-Sóv kv{XoIsf _emðkwKw sNbvXp. ]pcp-j-òmsc h[n¨ tijw  AhcpsS hkvXp hIIÄ IhÀóp. A¼-e§Ä XI-À¯p. Ah-bnse A£b- \n-[n-IÄ IhÀóp. e£-¡W¡n\v kv{XoIsf ASn-a-I-fm¡n hen-¨n-g¨p sImïp t]m-bn. 17þHmfw B{I-a-W-§Ä \S¯n. CXm-hÀ¯n¨p CXm-bn-cp-óp sImÅ!

apl-½Zv _n³ Xp¥¡v XpS§n Hudw-K-ko_v hsc-bpÅ apKÄ cm-Pm-¡-òm-cpsS ssk\yw Npäp-apÅ sslµh cmPm-¡-òm-cpsS ssk\yw Npäp-apÅ sslµh cmPm-¡-òm-sc Iogvs¸Sp-¯nb tijw sNbvXXpw CXp -X-só. 1937-þapXð 1944 þhsc 1944þ hsc ssN\-bpsS ]e`mK-§fpw Iog-S-¡nb tijw sNbvXXpw CXp Xsó.

1937 apXð 1944 hsc ssN\-bpsS ]e -`m-K-§fpw Iog-S-¡nb P¸m³ ssk\yw sNbvXv Iq«n-bXv temI -a-\-Êm-£nsb sR«n-¸n-¡pó {Iqc-X-I-fm-Wv. e£-¡-W-¡n\v P\-§sf hmfn\p sh«n¨pw shSn- h¨pw sImóp. `h-\-§Ä tXmdpw \Sóv kv{XoIsf th«-bm-Sn. sImÅ-b-Sn-¨p. \mep- e-£-t¯mfw kv{XoIsf Iw^À«v hpa¬ Fó t]coð anen-«dn Iym¼nð sImïp- t]mbn ]oUn-¸n-¨p. arX-{]m-b-cm-Ip-t¼mÄ amdnSw tOZn-¨pw, apÅp -I-¼n- sImïv hcnªp apdp¡n shbn-e-¯n-«pw, Kply-`m-K-§-fnð _b-Wäv Ib-änbpw sImóp. CXm-bn-cpóp sImÅ-  Refe : The rape of nanking . The forgotten Holocaust of II W:W: y Irish Chang.) 2, The rape of Nanking: by Yin and young : "Hm¸-td-j³ _mÀ _tdmk' Fó t]coð djy-bn-te¡v Cc¨p Ibdn e\n³ {KmUpw, Ìmen³ {KmUpw hfª PÀ½³ ssk\yw sNbvXXpw CXp -Xsó. \m-kn-IÄ X«n- sIm-ïp-t]mb aqóp e£-t¯mfw djy³ kv{XoIsf¸än bmsXmcp hnh-c-hp-an-ñ. Ahsc¸än Bcpw At\z-jn-¨-Xp-an-ñ. (Ref) Operation Barborosa,  (2) Beseigh of  Leningrade

djy³ ssk\yw Xncn¨v PÀ½-\n-bn-tebv¡v Ib-dn-b-t¸mgpw sNbvXp Iq«n-bXv CXp-t]m-epÅ sImSpw {Iqc-X-IÄ Xsó. F´n\v Ncn-{X-¯nse Gähpw {Iqc-\mb GIm-[n-]-Xn-bmb Ìmen³ kz´w cmPy-¯nse P\-§-tfmSv sNbvXXv F´v.? aqóp -tImSn d-jym-¡msc (_qÀjzm-kn-Isf) sImsóm-Sp-¡n-b-Xmbn djy³ am[y-a-§Ä Xsó dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿p-óp. "sk³{Sð Ìmän¡v _yqtdm Hm^v tkmhn-bäv bqWn-b³' ]pd-¯p-hn« IW-¡p-IÄ {]Imcw 1938-þð Xsó Hó-c-t¡mSn \nc]cm[n-Isf Ìmen³ sImsóm-Sp-¡n. AhnsS \Só `oI-c -aÀ±-\-§Ä a\p-jy-a-\-Êns\ ac-hn¸n¡póXm-Wv. Ir{Xn-a- £m-a-§Ä hsc \S¯n Hcp {]tZ-is¯ P\-Xsbt¸mepw \njv¡cpWw sImsóm-Sp-¡n. AdÌp sN¿pó sdUvKmÀUp-IÄ `bm-\-I-amb aÀ±-\-§Ä¡pw Nqj-W-§Ä¡pw Cc-bm-¡n.Ref:Hell  on earth  : by  LUDWI-KOWALSKI.

C´ybnð ]c-kv]cw t]mcm-Sns¡mïncn-¡pó Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\mb \m«p-cm-Py-§fpw CXp Xsó sNbvXp. Sn¸p kpð¯m-sâbpw aäpw kwlm-c- Zq-X-òmÀ ae_mdnepw aäpw sNbvXp Iq«nb sImSpw {Iqc-X-IÄ F{Xtbm `bm-\-Iw. sslµh `h-\-§Ä apgph³ sImÅ-b-Sn-¨p. kv{XoIsf `bm\-I-amb coXn-bnð ]oUn-¸n-¨p. Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dns\ Sn¸p-hnsâ kwlm-cm-án-bnð \nóv c£s¸-Sp-¯n-bXv {_o«n-jp-Im-cm-bn-cpóp. Sn¸phnsâ sImSpw- {Iq-c-X-IÄ Iïp kln -sI-«mWv Cw¥o-jp-ImÀ {iocw-K-]-«Ww B{I-an-¨-Xv. Aóv AkwJyw kv{XoIfpw Ip«n-Ifpw {_o«ojv tkmWp-I-fnð A`bw {]m]n¨v  c£-s¸-«p. CXm-bn-cpóp Aós¯ Fóñ Cópw IogS¡nb cmPy§fnse P\§tfmSv sNbvXn-cp-ó-Xv. Cópw kndn-bm-bnð kz´w P\§tfmSv sN¿pó  sImSpw {Iqc-X-IÄ F{Xtbm `bm\Iw.!

{_o«n-jp-ImÀ¡pw CXp Xsó C´y-bnð sN¿m-am-bn-cp-óp. e£-¡-W-¡n\v  kv{XoIsf ssewKnI ASn-aI-fm¡n Cw¥-ïn-te¡p sImïp t]mIm-am-bn-cp-óp. `h-\-§fpw A¼-e-§fpw sImÅ -sN-¿m-am-bn-cpóp. C´y-bnse \m«p-cm-Pm-¡-òmÀ sNbvX-Xp -t]mse At\-Im-bn-c-§sf N§ebv¡n«v ASna the sN¿n-¡m-am-bn-cpóp. A¼-e-§Ä sImÅ -sNbvXpw XIÀ¯pw Ahn-Sps¯ A£-b \n-[n-IÄ sImÅ sN¿m-am-bn-cp-óp. ]t£ AhÀ CsXmópw sNbvXn-ñ. ]Icw C´ysb ]Sp-¯p-bÀ¯p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. AXmWv {_o«n-jp-ImÀ C´ybv¡v sNbvX Gäpw henb kw`m-h-\. ASn-a-I-fm-bn-cpó C´ym-¡msc DS-a-I-fm-¡p-I-bmWv AhÀ sNbvX-Xv.

ASn-a-I-fm-bn-cpó Cug-h-tcbpw ]pe-b-tcbpw ASn-a-¯-¯nð \nóp tamNn-¸n-¨-Xv. Cw¥o-jp-Im-cpsS ià-amb kzm[o\hpw `oj-Wnbpw aqe-am-bn-cp-óp. tIc-f¯nse `qan apgp-h³ cmPmhnsâtbm, Asñ-¦nð \¼q-Xn-cn-am-cmb Pòn-I-fp-sStbm, hI Bbn-cpóp. Asñ-¦nð A¼-e-§-fpsS hI (cm-P-kw, {_Ò-kw, tZhkw). AhnsS Irjn- sN-bvXn-cpó Irjn-ImÀ¡v (Ip-Sn-bm³) Irjn `qan ]Xn¨p \ðIphm\pÅ {]Y-a- dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n-¨Xv Aós¯ ae_mÀ. Unkv{SnIv If-IvSÀ Bbn-cpóp (Ch-cnð `qcn-`mKhpw {InkvXym-\n-Ifmbncp-óp)

A§s\ cmPm-¡-òm-cpsSbpw, Pòn-am-cp-sS-bpw, \¼q-Xncn-am-cp-sSbpw ASn-a-I-fmbn Ign-ªn-cpó Hcp P\-Xsb ASn-a-¯-¯nð \nóv tamNn-¸n-¨Xv Cw¥n-jp-Im-cm-bn-cp-óp.- A-§s\ ASn-a-IÄ DS-a-I-fm-bn. C´y-bnð 90 iX-am\w P\-§fpw ASn-a-I-fmbncpón-tñ.? {_o«n-jp-ImÀ t]mbn 70 hÀj-§Ä Ign-ªn-«p- IqSn kzX{´ C´y-bnse hSt¡ C´y-bnse Hs¡ ØnXn F´m-sWóv GhÀ¡pw Adn-bmw. Asñ-¦nð apKÄ km-{a-Py-¯nsâ `mK-ambn jmcnb \nbaw ASn-t¨ð¸n-¡-s¸« Hcp apÉnw cmjv{Sob C´ym amdn-tbt\! (Ref: Travancore History, 2 , Malabar Manual by. Logan, dtiric Collector of Malabar -1867-1888

{_n«o-jp-ImÀ C´ym-¡msc ASn-a-I-fm-¡p-I-bñ sNbvX-Xv. adn¨v ASn-a-¯-¯nð \nóv Ign-ªn-cpó Zcn{Z P\ -tIm-Sn-Isf ASn-a-¯-- ¯nð \nóv tamNn-¸n-¡p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv Fó-XmWv kXyw.- am-{X-añ `h\-§-fnð ASn-a-¯-- ¯nsâ Nph-cp-I-fnð Xf-bv¡-- s¸« C´y³ kv{XoIÄ¡v kzmX-{´hpw am\y-amb Øm\hpw e`n-¨Xpw {_n«njv `c-W-t¯mSp IqSn-bm-Wv.

temI- bp-²-§-fnð 54000 C´ym-¡mÀ ac-W-a-S-sªópw 25 e£w C´ym-¡mÀ {_n«\p thïn s]mcpXn Fópw iin XcqÀ shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p-óp. IW¡v icn-bm-bn-cn-¡mw.

Aóv {_o«ojv C´y³ BÀan-bnð Hcp tPmen e`n-¡pI F{X atlm-ó-X-amb  Imcy-am-bn-cpóp FtómÀ¡-Ww. Cu teJ-Isâ ]nXr-k-tlm-Z³ {_n«ojv C´y³ BÀan-bn-em-bn-cp-óp. At±lw \m«nð hcp-t¼mÄ Fkv.-]n.-amÀ t]mepw keyq«v ASn-¡p-am-bn-cp-óp. Aóv Xpey i¼-fhpw \ðIn, Fñm B\p-Ip-ey-§fpw \ðIn BÀan-bnð tPmen sImSp-¯p. Bcpw _e-ambn ]nSn-¨p- sIm-ïp-t]m-b-X-ñ. ]«m-f-¯nð tPmen e`n-¨Xv bp²w hcpt¼mÄ t]mI-phm-\m-Wv. ChÀs¡ñmw i_fhpw aäv B\p-Iq-ey§fpw \ðIn Ahkm-\- s]³j\pw e`n¨p. Rm³ shñp-hn-fn¨p tNmZn-¡p-óp. Cóv {_n«njv ssk\y-¯n-tebv¡v C´y-bnð \nóv bphm-¡sf dn{Iq«v sN¿p-óp-shóv Hcp ]ckyw \ðIs«. F{X Zie£w B¹o-t¡-j-\p-IÄ e`n-¡n-ñ? ]nsó Aós¯ Imcyw ]d-b-tWm. 25 e£w t]À s]mcp-Xn-sb-¦nð AhÀ¡v i_fw e`n-¨p, s]³j³ e`n-¨p. Aóv s]mcp-Xnb Hcn-´ym-Im-c\pw AsXmcp \jvS-ambn IW-¡m-¡p-ón-ñ. adn¨v AhÀ Cópw A`n-am-\-ambn IW-¡m-¡p-óp. {_o«njvImÀ¡v thW-sa-¦nð Iog-S-¡nb cmPy§-fnse P\-§-tfmSv P¸m³Imcpw, d-jym-¡mcpw. PÀ½³Imcpw sNbvX-Xp -t]mse N§-e-bv¡n-«p- sIm-ïp- t]mbn ASn-a-¸Wn sN¿n-¡m-am-bn-cp-óp. Ah-km\w arX-{]m-b-am-Ipt¼mÄ shSn- h¨p If-b-am-bn-cp-óp. AX-hcp sNbvXn-ñ. AXn\p ]Icw Cw¥o-jp-ImÀs¡m¸w ]cn-K-Wn-¨p. AXmWv B cmPy-¯nsâ al-Xzw.

am{X-añ {_n«³ bp²w Pbn-t¡-ïn-bXv C´y-bp-sSbpw Bh-iy-am-bn-cpóp. Asñ-¦nð 60 e£w blq-Zsc Kymkv tNw¼-dn-en«v sImó, Z-i-e-£-¡-W-¡n\v djym-¡m-scbpw t]mf-ïp-Im-scbpw sImsóm-- Sp-¡nb lnäve-tdm, Asñ-¦nð AXn-{Iq-c-òm-cmb P¸m³Imtcm C´y `cn-t¨-t\. ]nós¯ A\p`hw ]d-tb-ï-Xn-ñtñm, CXv a\-Ên-em-¡n-bmWv alm-ß-KmÔn {_n«\v ]n´pW {]Jym-]n-¨-Xv.

alm-ß-Km-Ôn-bpsS Bbp-[-anñm ka-chpw D¸p -k-Xym-{K-lhpw D]-hm-khpw  Fñmw Nne-hm-bXv kqcy-\-kvX-an-¡m¯ {_n«njv km{amPy-¯nsâ ap¼nð. atä-sXmcp cmPy-¡m-cm-bn-cp-óp-sh-¦nepw alm-ß- Km-Ôn-bp-sS-tbm, s\lr-hn-sâtbm, atä-sX-¦nepw C´y³ t\Xm-¡-fp-sStbm s]mSn- t]mepw ImWp-am-bn--cp-tóm.? alm-ß -Km-Ôn-bp-sStbm D]-hm-k-¯n\p ap¼nð {_n«ojv knwl-¯nsâ a\p-jy-Xzw Iog-S-§n. Asñ-¦nð Aós¯ GsX-¦nepw \m«p-cm-Pm-¡-òm-cpsS ap¼n-tem , Pao-´m-cpsS ap¼ntem ({_o«n-jp-ImÀ iàn BÀÖn-¡p-ó-Xn\v ap¼v) alm-ßm-KmÔn kXym-{Klw Ccn-¡-s«. At¸m-g-dn-bm-am-bn-cpóp A\-´-c-^-ew.

{_n«njpImÀ C´y `-cn-¨n-ñm-bn-cpópsh¦nð iin XcqÀ Fó hyàn C´ym alm-cm-Py-¯nsâ Fw.]n Bbn kyq«pw [cn¨v HmIvkvt^mÀUnð \nóv {]kw-Kn-¡p-am-bn-cptóm Fóv Hóp Nn´n-¡p-ó-Xp- sIm-Åmw.- C-´y-sb-sómcp P\m-[n-]-Xy-cmPyw temI-¯nð DïmIn-ñm-bn-cp-óp. thWm-Sn-sâtbm CS -\m-Sn-sâtbm cmPm-[n-Im-c-¯nð Pohn-t¨-t\. A¼tXm Adp-]tXm hÀj-§Ä sImïv cmP-`-c-Whpw t]mbn, Cug-hcpw, \mb-òmcpw ASn-a-¯-¯nð \nóp tamNn-¸n-¡-s¸«v kvIqfp-Ifpw tImtf-Pp-Ifpw Øm]n-¡-s¸«v, hnZym-`ymkw BÀÖn¨v \mamcpw Xsó Cós¯ \ne-bn-se-¯p-am-bn-cp-tóm? \njv]-£-ambn Nn´n-¡p-I. C´ybpsS ap¡mð `mKhpw Cóv apKÄ `-c-W-¯nsâ ]n´p-SÀ¨-bmbn Hcp apÉow cmPy-ambn amdpIbn-ñm-bn-cp-tóm.?

At±-l-¯nsâ ASp¯ Btcm-]Ww C´y-bnse P\-§Ä \qäm-ïpIÄ sImïv AS¨ \nIp-Xn-bpsS IW¡v 10 tImSn ]uïv Fóm-Wv.- A-sñ-¦nð AhÀ \nIpXn AS-bv¡p-am-bn-cp-ón-tñ.? B \nIp-Xn-sbñmw Aós¯ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n-\mb \m«p-cm-Pm-¡-òm-cpsS kpJ- Po-hn-X-¯n\pw A´an-ñm¯ bp²-§Ä¡pw am{Xw Nne-hm-Ip-am-bn-cp-ón-tñ.? C´y-bnð {_n«n-jp-ImÀ \S¯nb \nÀ½mW {]hÀ¯\§Ä Cu \nIp-Xnbpw AXn-t\-¡mÄ F{Xtbm Cc-«n-bpw. hcpw.! ChnsS cmPm-¡-òmÀ, Xe-¡cw ape-¡cw XpS§n kv{XoI-fp-sS Hmtcm Ah-bh§Ä¡pw hsc \nIpXn CuSm-¡n-bn-cp-óp. AXn\p ]Wanñm¯hÀ h\-§-fnepw taSp-I-fn-epsamfn¨p. Ahsc Im«p arK§sf t]mse th«-bm-Sn-s¡m-óp. Cu \nIpXn¸Ww cmPm-¡-òm-cpsS kpJ-tem-ep-]-X-bv¡mbn Nne-h-gn-¨p. C´y-bnse cïp cmPm-¡-òm-cpsS Hcp ]´-b-IY CXm-Wv.

ASp¯ Hcp hÀj¯n\pÅnð Gähpw IqSp-Xð s]¬Ip-«n-I-fpsS Nmcn{Xw  Ih-cpóXmbn-cn¡pw Fó-Xm-bn-cpóp ]´bw .s]¬Ip-«n-I-fp-sS "ap¡p¯n' Bbn-cpóp AS-bm-fw. cmP-In-¦-c-òmÀ \mSp \osf \Sóp s]¬¡p-«n-Isf th«-bm-Sn-]n-Sn-¨p.- A-h-km\w Hcp hÀjw Ignªv Cu ap¡p¯n Fñmw Xq¡n-b-t¸mÄ Intem-¡-W-¡n\v kzÀ®w hópht{X.!Reference  Freedom at midnight) CXv C´ybnse cmPm-¡-òm-cpsS Pohn-X -co-Xn-bpsS sNdnb Hcp-Zm-l-cWw am{Xw.

{_o«n-jp-ImÀ \nIpXn ]ncn-s¨-¦nð AXp-]-tbm-Kn¨pw AXnð IqSp-X-ep-ambn F´p- am{Xw \nÀ½mW {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä ChnsS \S-¯n. C´y-bnð Cópw AhÀ \nÀ½n¨XñmsX F´p-ïv.? AhÀ \nÀ½n¨ ]me-§fpw aäp Øm]-\-§fpw FgpXn hr¯n-tI-Sm¡nbñmsX asä-´p- sN-bvXp.? AhÀ \nÀ½n¨ ]p\-eqÀ Xq¡p-]m-e-hpw, aqóm-än-se I¼n- ]m-e-§Ä t]mepw Fóp thï iÀ¡-cbpw Np®m¼pw sImïp \nÀ½n¨ apñ-s]-cn-bmÀ Umw hsc Hcp tISp-an-ñmsX Cópw \ne- \nð¡p-t¼mÄ cïp hÀjw ap¼p tImSn-IÄ Nne-h-gn¨p \nÀ½n¨ ]me-§fpw tdmUp-Ifpw ag-b¯v Hen-¨p -t]m-Ipó ImgvN-bmWv Cóp ImWphm³ km[n-¡p-ó-Xv. C´ysb GIo-I-cn¨v C´y-bnð tImSn-IÄ hcpó \nÀ½mW {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä \S¯n C´ybv¡v ASn-Øm-\-an-«n-ñm-bn-cp-óp-sh-¦nð C´ybpsS KXn F´m-Ip-am-bn-cp-óp.? C´y-sbó Hcp P\m-[n-]-Xy-cmPyw Cu `qap-Jt¯ ImWn-ñm-bn-cp-óp. B{^n-¡³ `qJWvUw t]mse At\Iw cmPy-§-fpsS Hcp-]-`p-J-WvUw. Hcn¡ð IqSn ]d-bs« C´y Cópw shÅ-¡mÀ `cn-¨n-cp-óp-sh-¦nð Cóv Ata-cn-¡sb shñpó Hcp iàn-bmbn C´y-am-dn-tb-t\.

\nIp-Xn-bpsS IW¡v 10 tImSn ]uïv!
C´y-bnð AhÀ \nÀ½n¨ C´y-bpsS Poh-\m-Un-bmb Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\v tdmUp-IÄ tIm¬{Io-äv ]m-e-§Ä, sdbnð th-IÄ, _nðUnw-Kp-IÄ, \Kc-§Ä, Xpd-ap-J-§Ä, Pe-bm-\-]m-X-IÄ F³ôn-\o-b-dnwKv tImtf-Pp-IÄ, saUn-¡ð tImtf-Pp-IÄ, Xpd-ap-J-IÄ, henb tXm«-§Ä A§s\ Fñm taJ-e-I-fnepw AhÀ \nÀ½n-¨-sX-ñm-¯n\pw Cós¯ IW¡p h¨v t\m¡n-bmð  {Snñy³ {Snñy³ ]uïp sImSp-¯mepw XnI-bp-tam.? AXnsâ A´-an-ñm¯ ^ew A\p-`hn-¡p-óXv C´ym-¡m-c-tñ.?

Hcp Irjn-¡m-c³ ]m«-¯n-s\-Sp¯ `qan-bnð \nóv Ahs\ \nÀ_-Ôn¨v  Cd-¡nhn-Sp-I-bmsW¦nð Ahsâ Irjn-bp-sSbpw Ah³ \nÀ½n¨ \nÀ½m-W {]hÀ¯-\-¯n-sâbpw \jvS- ]-cnlmcw sImSp-t¡-ïn-bXv am\yX Añ Ahsâ Ah-Im-i-am-Wv. Ah³ kzbw Hgn-ªp- t]m-Ip-I-bm-sW-¦nð IqSn Ah³ sNbvX-Xnsâ ^ew \mw A\p-`hn¡pI-bm-sW-¦nð Ah\p \jvS-]-cn-lmcw sImSp-¡-Ww. AXp am\y-Xbpw am{X-añ IS-a-bp-am-Wv. {_n«n-jp-ImÀ ChnsS \S-¯nb \nÀ½mW {]hÀ¯-\-§-fn-ñm-bn-cp-óp-sh-¦nð Cópw C´y CsXmópw kz]v\w t]mepw ImWp-I-bn-ñm-bn-cp-óp. AXn\v C´y Fsómcp cmPyw Dïm-bn-«p-th-tï.? Cu ]¯p- tImSn ]uïv Aós¯ Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\mb cmPm-¡-òm-cpsS kpJ-tem-ep-]-Xbpw A´-an-ñm¯ bp²-¯n\pambn D]-tbm-Kn-t¨-t\. {_o«n-jp-ImÀ \S-¯nb hnI-k\ {]hÀ¯-\-§fpsS Hcwiw t]mepw ChnsS Dïm-Ip-I-bn-ñm-bn-cpóp Fóp-ÅXv kXy-amWv. adn¨v  \njv]-£-a-Xn-IÄ Bcpw ]d-bp-I-bn-ñ. C´y-bnse s\bv¯p-Im-cpsS Zpc-Øbv¡v ImcWw {_o«njpImÀ ^mIvS-dn-IÄ Øm]n-¨-Xv sIm-ïm-sWópw C´y³ sSIvt\m-fPn D]-tbm-Kn¨mWv  Cw¥-ïnð s\bv¯v b{´-§Ä \nÀ½n-¨-sXópw {io iin Xcqcnsâ Isï-¯-ep-IÄ.!Cu \qäm-ïnse Gähpw henb Xami Fóp thWw Cu {]kvXm-hs¯¸än ]d-bp-hm³

1687-þð \yq«³ {]]-ô-¯nsâ sa¡m-\nkw Iïp- ]n-Sn-¨p. (Kp-cp-Xzm-IÀjhpw aäpw) 1799-þ1800 Ime-L-«-¯nð sXwkv \Zn-bpsS ASn-bn-eqsSbpw kap-{Z-¯n-\-Sn-bn-eq-sSbpw (Cw-¥ojv Nm\ð) Xpc¦w Dïm¡n AXphgn sdbnðth CSp-hm-\pÅ ]²Xn X¿m-dm-¡n, B sSIvt\m-f-Pn-bpÅ Hcp P\-X-bmWv C´y-bnð hó-Xv. s\bv¯p-Im-cpsS sSIvt\m-fPn tamjvSn¨p Fóp ]d-bp-óXv F{X A]lmkyw! Aóv AXn\p ap¼pw bqtdm¸nepw ssN\-bnepw Fñmw s\bv¯p-Im-cp-ïm-bn-cp-óp. 1733ð tPm¬sIbv ^ssf-bnwKv j«nð Fóp t]cn« b{´w Iïp-]n-Sn-¨-tXm-Sv IqSn s\bv¯nsâ thKX cïn-c-«nbpw apón-c-«n-bp-ambn 1785-þð FUvaïv ImÀ«v ssdäv Fó hyàn CXnð \nópw s\bvs¯{´w ]qÀ® cq]-¯nð Bhn-jvIcn¨p.

1820þ HmSv IqSn 250000-þs\ s\bvs¯-{´-§Ä (Weaving  Machines) Cw¥-ïnð {]hÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw At\Iw ^mIvS-dn-IÄ \ne-hnð hcn-Ibpw sNbvXp, hyh-km-bnI hn¹-h-t¯mSv IqSn BWv Ch-sbñmw Bcw-`n-¨-Xv. Cu kXy-§Ä Fñmw ad-¨p- h-¨p -sImïv CsXmópw Adn-bm¯ BÄ¡m-tcmSv At±-l-¯nsâ {]kwKw sImÅmw Cw¥-ïnð cïc e£w 8888 IÄ {]hÀ¯n-¨-t¸mÄ Chn-Sps¯ s\bv¯v sXmgn-em-fn-IfpsS ]Wn- t]mbn Fómcpw ]d-b-¯n-ñ.

Hmt«-dn£ hót¸mÄ ssk¡nÄ dn£m-¡m-cpsS sXmgnð \jvSs¸Sp-saóv ]dªp kacw sNbvXhÀ, sImbvs¯{´w hó-t¸mÄ sXmgn-em-fn-I-fpsS sXmgnð t]mIp-saóv ]dªv kacw sNbvXÀ, I¼yq-«À hó-t¸mÄ s¢À¡p-am-cpsS sXmgnð t]mIp-saóv ]dªp kacw sN¿p-ó-hÀ.! Cón taJ-e-I-fnð sXmgnð sN¿p-ó-hÀ F{X Zi-e-£-§Ä hcpw.! \mSp apSn¨v ,sXm-gnenñmbva hÀ²n-¸n-¨v, ]«nWn ]SÀ¯n, hn¹hw krjvSn-¡m-\m-{K-ln-¡pó {]Xy-b-imkv{Xw hnh-chpw hnZym-`ym-khpÅ Hcp hyàn Gäp ]d-ª-Xnð AtXm-sSm¸w C´y-bnepw skbvs¯-{´-§fpw ^mIvS-dn-Ifpw Øm]n¨v hyh-km-b- h-Xv¡-cWw km[n-¡p-I-bm-WÀ sNbvX-Xv. CXv ]dªv hne-]n-¡póhÀ {_n«n-jp-ImÀ t]mb-Xn-\p-tijw B ^mIvS-dn-IÄ AS-¨p- ]q«n sXmgnð t]mbhÀ¡v sXmgnð \ðIp-I-bm-bn-cpóp sNt¿-ï-n-bn-cp-óXv. AXn\p ]Icw F{Xtbm XpWn-an-ñp-IÄ {]hÀ¯\w Bcw-`n-¡p-I-bmWv Dïm-b-Xv. At¸mÄ Btcm-]-W-¯nsâ {]kàn F´v.?

Cóo taJ-e-I-fnð F{X Zi-e-£-§Ä tPmen sN¿póp.! am{X-añ Cóv F{Xtbm hntZ-i- D-Xv]-ó-§Ä C´y-bn-tebv¡v Cd-¡p-aXn sN¿p-óp.! ssN\okv DXv]-ó-§-fpsS IS-óp-I-bäw C´ybnse I¨-h-S-¡m-tcbpw sNdp-In-S -^m-IvS-dn-I-tfbpw F´p-am{Xw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-¡p-óp. -C-sXmópw Hcp {]iv\p-a-ñ.!

]m¡n-Øm³ A^vKm³ AXnÀ¯n apXð I\ym-Ip-amcn hsc-bpÅ C´ym D]-`q-J-WvU-¯nse sshZypXn t]mÌp-IÄ¡pw, C´y³ dbnðthbv¡p-ambn e£-¡-W-¡n-\v tX¡p- X-Sn-IÄ sh«p-t¼mÄ H³]-sX®w AÀ sh¨p -]n-Sn-¸n-¡pw. AhÀ imkv{Xo-b-ambn ¹mâv sNbvX tX¡n³ tXm«-§-fmWv Cóp t]mepw Im«p-I-Å-òmsc ap³\nÀ¯n P\-tk-h-IÀ I«p-ap-Sn-¡p-ó-Xv. {_n«¬ C´ybv¡v {]Xn-hÀjw \ðIpó klmbw GXmïv 2200 tImSn cq]-tbmfw hcp-a-s{X. AXp-t]mepw \nÊm-c-h-Xv¡-cn-¡p-Ibpw Xa-kv¡-cn-¡p-I-bp-amWv At±lw sNbvX-Xv. Cu 2200 tImSn At±-l¯n\v Hópañm-bn-cn-¡mw. ]t£ C´y-bnse ]«n-Wn-tIm-e-§Ä¡v AXnse Hmtcm Nnñn ss]kmbpw Poh-Zm-b-I-am-Wv. A\y-cnð \nópw klmbw ssI\o«n hm§n-bn«v AXns\ ]pÑn-¡p-I.!

{_n«\v Cu klmbw Xc-W-saóv Hcp \nÀ_-Ôp-an-ñ.- X-cp-óXv Ah-cpsS \ñ a\Êv AXn\v IrX-ÚX ]d-bp-I-bm-bn-cpóp Hcp Fw.-]n sNt¿-ïn-bn-cp-ó-Xv.

1770 epw 1943epw _wKmÄ, _olmÀ, Hdok Fóo kwØm-\-§-fnð ]«nWn aqew e£-¡-W-¡n\v C´y-¡mÀ acn-¨p. AXv {_o«n-jp-Im-cpsS Ipä-am-bn-cpóp FómWv {io iin XcqÀ {]kw-Kn-¨-Xv.! B kw`h¯nsâ \nP-ØnXn F´m-sW-ó-dn-bm-¯À ssI¿-Sn¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.! ]t£ AXnsâ ]nónse kXy-sa-s´óv a\-Ên-em-¡n-bmð \mhn-\mð \¡n GXv £ocs¯ tNmc-bm-¡m\pw tNmcsb £oc-am-¡p-hm-\p-apÅ Hcp cmjv{Sob t\Xmhnsâ X{´w ChnsS t_m²y-am-Ipw.

765-þð apKÄ N{IÀ¯n jm Aem-ansâ ssII-fnð \nóv _wKm-fnsâ `cWw CuÌv C´y I¼\n Gsä-Sp-¯p. AtXmsS _wKm-fnsâ \thm-°m\w Bcw-`n¨p Fóv _wKmfn Ncn-{X-Im-c-òmÀ Hó-S¦w {]Jym-]n-¡p-óp. tdmUp-IÄ, ]me-§Ä,  KXm-K-Xw, ssk\yw, t]meokv Fóo taJ-e-I-fnseñmw henb IpXn-¨p-Nm«w kw`-hn¨p. henb kmaq-lnI cmjv{Sob kmwkv¡m-cnIamb ]ptcm-K-a-\w, cmjv{Sob cq]m-´-c-¯w, hmWnPy hyh-km-bnI cwK-§-fnse henb aptóäw, AkwJyw kvIqfp-Ifpw, tImtf-Pp-Ifpw Øm-]n¨v hnZym-`ymk cwK-¯pÅ IpXn¨p Nm«w, Ið¡« t]mepÅ hmWnPy hyhkmb \K-c-§-fpsS hnI-k-\w, Fón§s\ _wKmÄ AXn io{Lw Fñm taJ-e-I-fnepw Hcp hnkvt^m-S\w km[n-¨p. am{X-añ kv{Xo[\ k{¼Zmbw, I-Sp¯ PmXn-hyhØ, aX-hn-th-N-\w, kv{XoIsf ASn-a-I-fm-¡pI Fóo§\bpÅ kmaq-lnI Xnò-I-fp-sSbpw A´y-¯nsâ Bcw-`-am-bn. CXv _wKmfn Ncn-{X-Im-c-òmÀ Hó-S¦w {]iwkn¨n«pÅ Imcy-am-Wn-Xv.

1765þ ð Bbn-cpóp I¼\n `cWw Gsä-Sp-¯-Xv. 1770-þð £maw s]m«n ]pds¸«p. AXn\p ImcWw 1769-þð Dïmb `b-¦-c-amb hcĨ Bbn-cpóp _wKm-fnsâ Ncn-{X-¯nð Dïm-bn-«pÅXnð h¨v Gähpw `bm-\-I-amb hcĨ Aóp-ïmbn. IpSn-sh-Åw t]mepanñmsX BSp-am-Sp-IÄ Ns¯mSp§n. BImihpw `qanbpw I¯n-sb-cnªp \nó hÀjw Irjn-IÄ apgph³ \in-¨p. AXn hn-im-e-amb ]mS-ti-J-c§Ä apgp-h³ Dt]£n-¡s¸«p. AXm-bn-cpóp Aós¯ £ma-¯nsâ {][m-\- Im-c-Ww. Aôv -hÀjw ap¼v `c-W-taä CuÌv C´ym I¼\nsb ]gn ]d-ªn«v F´p Imcyw.? AXpw {_o«n-jp-Im-cpsS Xe-bnð Npa-¯n. tamUn kÀ¡mÀ, A[n-Im-c-¯n-teäv cïmgvN Ign-ª-t¸mÄ hmKvZm\w sNbvX \ñ \mfp-IÄ Fhn-sS Fóv Hcp tIm¬{Kkv t\Xmhv tNmZn-¨Xpt]msebm-WnXv. hÀj-§Ä `cn¨v apSn-¨n«v tNmZn¨ tNmZyw!

1943-þepw henb £maw aqew At\I e£§Ä Ns¯m-Sp§n. AXn\v At\Iw Imc-W§Ä Dïv. Aóv P¸m³ ssk\yw _À½m Iog-S¡n C´y-bpsS Ihm-S-§-fnð Pm¸\okv kwlm-c-ZqX³ F¯n-t¨Àóp. Aóv _wKm-fn-te-bv¡pÅ Acn Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXn-cp-óXv _À½m-bnð \nóm-bn-cp-óp. AXv Pm¸-\okv ku\yw XS-ªp. Cu ka-b-sañmw {_o«n-jp-ImÀ Cu ZpjvS- i-àn-I-tfmSv Poh-ò-c-W -t]m-cm-«-¯n-em-bn-cp-óp, AXmWv Cu sImSpw £ma-¯nsâ Hóm-as¯ Imc-Ww. cïm-a-Xmbn B hÀj-§-fn-ep-ïmb sImSp-¦mäpw tXmcm-agbpw shÅ-s]m-¡hpw aqew GXmïv 4000-þ-t¯mfw kvIzbÀ ssað s\ð Irjn \in-¨p.!. am{X-añ I¨-S-¡mcpsSbpw, Ir-jn-¡m-cp-sSbpw, aäp hym]m-cn-I-fp-sSbpw Fñmw dntkÀ tÌm¡p-Ifpw shÅs]m¡w aqew \in-¨p. e£-¡-W-¡n\v arK-§fpw a\p-jycpw t]am-cn-bnepw

s]cp shÅ-¯nepw s]«v sImñ-s¸-«p. AtXm-sSm¸w s\ðIrjnsb _m[n¨ {_u¬ kvt]m«v Fó-dn-b-s¸-Spó IpanÄ tcmKw aqew _m¡n 90% ]mS-ti-J-c-§fpw \in-¨p. B hÀjw Xsó aqóp {]mhiyw Npgen-¡mäpw Xòq-e-ap-ïmb IS-em-{I-a-Whpw aqew _wKmfpw Abð kwØm-\§fpw XIÀóv \new ]cn-Nmbn. Ið¡-«-bn-tebv¡v _À½-bnð \nóv [m\y-§Ä Cd-¡p-aXn sN¿p-hm³ {_o«n-jp-ImÀ \S-¯nb \o¡-§fpw P¸m-\okv ssk\yw XIÀ¯p. Cu kabw _À½-bnse sImSp-ap-Sn-I-fnepw sImSp-¦m-Sp-I-fnepw {_o«njv ssk\yw Poh-ò-c-W-t]m-cm-«-¯n-em-bn-cp-óp. _À½³ P\-Xsb P¸m\okv ssk\y-¯nsâ Icm-f-l-kvX-§-fnð \nóp tamNn¸n¡phm-\pÅ {iaw. AhnsS ]Xn-\m-bn-c-¡-W-¡n\v {_o«njv ]«m-f-¡mÀ sImñ-s¸-«p. Añm-bn-cp-óp-sh-¦nð P¸m-\okv ssk\yw _À½m hgn C´y-bn-tebv¡v IS-¡p-am-bn-cp-óp.

_wKm-fn-t\bpw Abð kwØm-\-§-tfbpw _m[n¨ Ncn-{X-¯nse Gähpw `bm-\-Ihpw _o`-Õ-hp-amb {]IrXn Zpc-´-§-fm-bn-cpóp 1942-þð kw`-hn-¨-Xv. AXp-aqeapïmb £maw {_o«n-jp-ImÀ hcp¯n XoÀ¯-Xm-sWóp ]dªp {]kw-Kn¨ {io XcqÀ hmb-\-¡m-tcmSpw {_o«n-jp-Im-tcmSpw am¸v ]dtb-ïn-bn-cn-¡p-óp.!

1920- þð temI-¯nse \mem-as¯ sdbnðth s\äv hÀ¡mbncpóp C´y-bp-sS-Xv. temI-¯nse Gähpw kpµ-c-amb sdbnðth sSÀan-\ð t_mws_-bnse hnIvtSm-dnb sSÀan-\ð Bbn-cp-óp.! {_o«n-jp-ImÀ C´y `cn-¨n-ñm-bn-cpópsh¦nð C´ybv¡v AXv hnZp-c kz]v\w t]mepw BIp-I-bn-ñm-bn-cp-óp. 1850-þð BZys¯ tIm«³anð t_mws_-bnð Øm]n-¡-s¸-«p. 1854 ð \mep hÀjw sImïv 200-þ-Hmfw tIm«³ anñp-IÄ t_mws_bnð Xsó  Øm]n-¡-s¸-«p.! ]oóoSv hSt¡ C´ybnð \K-c-§-fn-señmw tIm«¬ anñp-IÄ Øm]n-¡-s¸-«p. amô-Ì-dnse anñp-I-fnse X\n]IÀ¸mbn-cpóp Ah-sb-ñmw. Chn-sS-sbñmw ]Xn-\m-bn-c-¡-W-¡n\v sXmgn-emfnIÄ¡v tPmen In«n. Aós¯ coXn-b-\p-k-cn-¨pÅ thX-\hpw. Aóv Cw¥-ïnepw thX\w hfsc Ipd-hmbncpóp. ]oóoSv t]¸À ^mIvS-dn-IÄ, ssa\nw-Kv, Ið¡-cn, tXbn-e, Im¸n, dºÀ, tXm«-§Ä Ah-tbm-S-\p-_-Ôn¨v At\Iw ^mIvS-dn-IÄ Fñmw \nÀ½n¨v C´y-bnð hyh-km-b-XvI-c-W-¯n\v ASn-¯-d-bn-Sp-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. XXv ^-e-ambn C´y-bnse P\-§Ä ssIIÄ sImïp-ïm-¡nb kvXp¡-tf-¡mÄ Ipdª hnebv¡v \ñ km[-\-§Ä P\-§Ä¡p e`n¨p. am{X-añ hntZ-i -h-kvXp-¡-tfm-SpÅ I¼hpw aqew P\-§Ä hntZ-i- h-kvXp-¡fpsS ]nómse ]c¡w ]mªp.("Refer: Indutsrics in India during  18th  and 19 th century  by Usha Rani BansalDept : of History Banaras  Hindu Universtiy Varanasi)

]nsó GsXmcp cmPyhpw kz´w cmPy-¯nse P\-§-tfbpw Ah-cpsS Xmð¸cyhpw kwc-£n-¡p-hm³ {ian-¡pw. AXp Ipä-a-ñ.GXmïv 22 hÀj-§Ä¡v ap¼v Cu teJ-I³ Iq\qÀ Xma-kn-¨n-cp-óp. ]nXrktlm-Z-csâ `h-\-¯nð t]mbn knän-bnð IqSn kwkm-cn-¨p- sImïp \S-¡pó ka-b¯v At±lw ]dªp, CXv A¸À Iq\qÀ BWv. ChnsS ]ïv C´ym-¡mÀ¡v {]thi-\-anñmbncpóp Fóv.

AsX´m? Rm³ tcmj-t¯msS tNmZo-¨p. \o Xmtgbv¡p hcnI Fóp ]d-ªp-sImïv At±lw \S-óp. R§Ä \Sóv temhÀ Iq\p-cn-se-¯n. \o t\m¡vþ CXmWv Imc-Ww. Fóp ]d-ªp- sImïv At±lw tdmUnsâ  Ccp-h-i-§-fn-tebv¡pw Hcp ho£Ww \S¯n. At¸mÄ Rm³ IïXv B tdmUnsâ Ccp-h-i-§-fnepw a\pjy hnkÀÖy-§Ä Ipóp-IqSn InS-¡pó ImgvN-bmWv Iï-Xv. \mkm-c-{Ô-§-fn-tebv¡v ASn-¨p -I-b-dpó ZpÀK-Ôhpw! R§Ä Hcp Xc-¯nð Ahn-Spóv c£-s¸-«p. At±lw ]dªp CXp Xsó Imc-Ww.

Fcp-taen t]«-sI-«nsâ \mfp-I-fnð kao-]-¯p-IqSn Hgp-Ipó aWn-a-e-bm-dnsâ Ccp-I-c-I-fnepw GI-tZiw cïp aqóp Intem-ao-äÀ \of-¯nð HcSn L\-¯nð a\p-jy -hn-kÀÖy-§Ä Ipóp- IqSn InS-¡pó ImgvN ImWmw. A[n-Ir-XÀ t¢mdn³ s]mSn AXn\p apI-fnð hnX-dpw. ag s]¿p-t¼mÄ Cu hnkÀÖy§Ä Hen¨v Bän-te-bv¡n-d-§pw. AXn\p Xmsg-bmbn tZhkzw t_mÀUn-sâbpw ]ôm-b-¯nsâbpw hm«À Sm¦nð \nópw 24 aWn-¡qdpw Pew ]¼p sN-¿pó ImgvN- Im-Wmw.Cóv \½psS tIc-f-¯nse ØnXn CXm-sW-¦nð Aós¯ ØnXn hntijw F´m-bn-cn¡pw Fóv Duln-¡pI.
XpS-cpw....
 

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ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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