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BREAKING NEWS

I½yq-Wnk-¯nsâ `oIc apJw

Britishmalayali
t]mÄ aÞew

I½yq-Wn-Ìv ]mÀ«n-bpsS Ducp- hn-e-¡n\pw aÀ±-\-§Ä¡pw Cc-bmbn Pohn-¡pó s\Sp-apSn-¡mcn ho«-½-bpsS IZ\ IY adp-\m-S³ ae-bmfn dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXXv hmbn¨p sFkn--kn-t\-¡mÄ {Iqccpw ^mknÌpI-fp-amWv amÀIvknÌp-ImÀ Fóv iin kp-Umð^nb Fgp-Xnb Iaâpw hmbn¨p Cu kXyw a\-Ên-em-¡nb Hcp hyànsb¦nepw tIc-f-¯nð Dï-tñm.

I®qcpw ImkÀtKmSpw a\pjysâ ssI¿pw Imepw sh«n amän ]nS-bpó Hcp _-Ôs¯ t\m¡n C¦p-em_v hnfn-¡pó ]mÀ«n-tb-¡mÄ ]nôp Ipªp§fpsS ap¼n-en«v A²ym-]-Is\ sh«n \pdp-¡nb `oI-c-òm-sc thm«p sNbvXp hnP-bn-¸n-¡pó tIcf P\-X-bpsS a\-km£n AXnepw {Iqc-atñ? A[n-Imcw In«n-¡-gn-bp-t¼mÄ \ne-hn-epÅ \nb-a-¯nsâ Fñm ]gp-Xp-Ifpw D]-tbm-Kn¨v Cu `oI-c-òmÀ¡v in£ hm§n sImSp-¡p-ó-Xn\v ]Icw \nbaw \nb-a-¯nsâ hgn¡v t]mIs« Fóv ]dªv ]mep-®n-Isft¸mse `cWw \S-¯pó tIm¬{KÊv t\Xm-¡Ä.

Cu `oIc-òmsc t\cn-Sp-hm³ _nsP]n t]mse ià-amb Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n tIc-f-¯nð A[nIm-c-¯nð hc-W-saóv P\w Nn´n-¡pó \mfp-IÄ hnZq-c-a-ñ. A[nImcw In«n-bmð F{X {Iqc-X-Ifpw ss]im-Nn-I-Xbpw I½yq-Wn-Ìp-ImÀ sN¿pw Fó kXyw Cu teJ-\-¯n-eqsS A\m-hr-X-amIp-óp. iin kpUm-ð^nbmsbt¸mse Bsc-¦nepapsï-¦nð AhÀ kXyw a\-Ên-em-¡-s«.

temI Ncn-{X-¯nse Gähpw `bm-\-I-amb Iq«-s¡m-e-Ifpw {Iqc-aÀ±-\-§fpw XmWvU-h-am-Sn-bXv lnäve-dpsS tIm¬k³t{S-j³ Iym¼n-em-bn-cpóp FómWv s]mXp-th-bpÅ [mc-W. Fómð lnäve-dpsS tIm¬k³t{S-j³ Iym¼p-I-sf-t¸mepw sR«n-¸n-¡pó Iq«-s¡m-e-IÄ Ac-t§-dn-bXv I½yq-WnÌv cmPy-§-fn-em-bn-cpóp Fó Cu kXyw A[nI-amcpw Adn-ªn-«n-ñ. \mkn-IÄ ]c-tZ-in-Itfm-SmWv {Iqc-X-IÄ sNbvX-sX-¦nð I½yq-WnÌv `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-IÄ kztZ-in-I-fpsS taemWv sImSpw {Iqc-X-IÄ Agn¨p hn«-Xv.

AXn-\p-¯-tam-Zm-l-c-W-amWv Iwt_m-Un-bm-bnse I½yq-WnÌv `c-Ww.

1975 ð t]mÄ t]m-«nsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯nð Hcp cà cq£nX hn¹-h-¯n-eqsS Iwt_m-Un-bm-bnð I½yq-WnÌv ]mÀ«n A-[nImcw ]nSn-s¨-Sp-¯p. AtXm-Sp-IqSn I½yq-Wn-k-¯nsâ \ocmfn¸nSp-¯-¯nð Iwt_m-Unbm sRcn-ª-aÀóp.

A[n-Imcw ]nSn-s¨-Sp¯ DSs\ t]mÄ t]m«v {]Jym-]n¨p ""Znkv Cukv Z CubÀ Hm^v kotdm'' (CXv iq\y-X-bpsS hÀj-am-Wv)

\mfp-IÄ¡p-Ånð At±lw kaql ip²o-I-cWw Bcw-`n-¨p. kÀÆ aX-§fpw \ntcm-[n-¨p. _p²n `n£p-¡-sfbpw ss{IkvXh ]ptcm-ln-X-scbpw {Iqc-amb aÀ±-\-§Ä¡n-c-bm-¡n. hntZ-in-Isf \mSp-I-S-¯n. Fñm hntZi Fw_-kn-I-fpw, ]{Xw, tdUn-tbm, Snhn XpS-§nb Fñm hmÀ¯m hn\n-ab tI{µ-§fpw AS¨p ]q«n. t^m¬, X]mð XpS-§n-b-hbpw \ntcm-[n-¨p. A§s\ Iwt_m-Unbm ]pdw temI¯p \nópw Hä-s¸«v I½yq-Wn-k-¯nsâ Ccp¼p ad-bv¡p-Ån-e-I-s¸-«p.

hnZym-`ymkw \ntcm-[n-¡p-Ibpw Ip«n-I-fpsS taepÅ amXm-]n-Xm-¡-fpsS Ah-Imiw l-\n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ip«n-IÄ tÌänsâ hI-bmbn ]cn-K-Wn-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw _me-th-eIÄ¡mbn te_À Iym¼p-I-fn-te¡v sImïp t]mIp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AhnsS AhÀ {Iqamb ]oU-\-§Ä¡v Cc-bm-bn.

\o Pohn-¡tWm acn-¡tWm R§Ä Xocp-am-\n¡pw AXm-bn-cpóp ImaÀ tdmKp-IÄ Fó-dn-b-s¸-Spó Iwt_m-Un-b³ ]mÀ«n kJm-¡-fpsS `mjyw.

]gb kaq-ls¯ XpS¨p amäpI Fsómcp ]²Xn kJm-¡-fpsS klm-b-t¯msS t]mÄ t]m«v Bhn-jvI-cn-¨p. AtXmSp IqSn `bm-\-I-amb Iq«-s¡m-e-Ifpw {Iqc aÀ±\-§fpw Bcw-`n-¨p.

a²y hÀ¤-s¯bpw hnZym-`ym-k-ap-Å-h-scbpw Iq«-t¯msS sImsóm-Sp-¡n. A²ym-]I³, h¡oðamÀ, kÀÆo-knð \nópw hnc-an¨ ]«m-f-¡mÀ, Kh¬saâv Poh-\-¡mÀ XpS-§n-b-hsc `mcy-am-tcmSpw Ip«n-I-tfmSpw IqSn sImsóm-Sp-¡n. kJm¡Ä s]meo-knsâ ZuXyw Gsä-Sp-¯p. ]mÀ«n A\p-`m-hn-I-f-sñóp kwi-b-apÅ sXmgn-em-fn-Isfbpw kJm-¡Ä shSn-h¨p sImóp. `oI-c-§-fmb aÀ±\ apd-IÄ cmPy-sa-¼mSpw Agn¨p hn«p. hnZym-`ymkw e`n-¨-Xnsâ t]cnð, Cw¥ojv Adn-ª-Xnsâ t]cnð `oIc aÀ±-\-§Ä ]ecpw Gäp hm§n.

Iwt_m-Un-bm-bnð Dïm-bn-cpó cïp e£-t¯mfw ssN\m-¡msc \njvI-cpWw sImsóm-Sp-¡n. Ah-cpsS kv{XoIsf {Iqc-amb ssewKn-ImSn-a-¯-¯n-\v hnt[-b-cm-¡n. apÉow \yq\-]-£s¯ ]ón amwkw `£n-¸n-¨p. hnk-½-Xn-¨-hsc shSn-h¨p sImóp. Xe-Øm\ \K-cn-bnse 521 mw \¼À Pbn-enð am{Xw kv{XoIfpw Ip«n-Ifpw DÄs¸« 17000 t]À ac-W-a-S-ªp.

amXm-]n-Xm-¡-fnð \nópw ASÀ¯n- am-änb Ip«n-Isf Ip«n kJm-¡-Ä \nÀt±-in-¡p-ó-hÀ¡v hnhmlw sNbvXp sImSp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

1975 apXð 1979 hsc-bpÅ \mep hÀj-§Ä sImïv 25 e£w P\-§Ä Iwt_m-Un-bm-bnð ac-W-a-S-bp-Itbm sImñ-s¸-Sp-Itbm sNbvX-Xmbn IW-¡m-¡-s¸-Sp-óp. te_À Iym¼p-I-fnse AanXm-²zm-\hpw {Iqc aÀ±-\-§fpw ]«n-Wnbpw aqehpw e£-¡-W-¡n\v Ip«nIÄ Cub-¸m-ä-I-sf-t¸mse acn¨p hoWp. Ah-km\w \nÀ²-\cpw \nc-£-c-cp-amb Hcp kaqlw AhnsS cq]m-´-c-s¸-«p. kJm-¡Ä `qan-bnse ssZh-§-fmbn amdn. AhÀ \mep hÀj-§Ä sImïv km[m-c-W-¡mcpw hnZym-k-¼-ó-cp-amb Hcp hn`mKs¯ GXmïv XpS¨p amän Fóp ]d-bmw.

cmPy-sa-¼mSpw aÀ±\ Iym¼p-IÄ Øm]n-¡-s¸-«p. A[nImcw e`n¨p Ign-ªmð a\pjy a\-Êns\ ac-hn¸n-¡pó {Iqc-X-IÄ I½yq-WnÌv kJm-¡Ä P\-§-fpsS tað Agn«p hnSp-ó-Xnsâ kvamc-I-§-fmbn Ah Iwt_m-Un-bm-bnð \ne sImÅp-óp.

1979 Ah-km\w hnbäv\mw Iwt_m-Unbm B{I-an-¨p. ]cm-Pb-s¸-«-t¸mÄ t]mÄ t]m«v 17 hÀj-§-tfmfw Kdnñ bp²w \S-¯n. 1998 ð lrZb kvXw`\w aqew {Iqc-\m-b B GIm-[n]Xn ac-W-a-S-ªp. I½yq-WnÌv {Iqc-X-bp-sSbpw ss]im-Nn-I-X-bpsSbpw ]cymbambn e£-¡-W-¡n\v Xe-tbm-Sp-IÄ Iwt_m-Un-bm-bpsS hnhn[ `mK-§-fnð Cópw Iq«n-bn-«n-cn-¡p-óp.

djy³ I½yq-Wnk-¯nsâ hniz-cq]w BWv AXn-`-bm-\-Iw. I½yq-Wnkw Øm]n-¡p-hm³ thïn k{Xo-Ifpw Ip«n-I-fp-apÄs¸sS GI-tZiw apóp tImSn djy-¡m-sc-bmWv Ìmen³ sImsóm-Sp-¡n-b-Xv. djy³ am²y-a-§Ä Xsó-bmWv Cu IW-¡p-IÄ ]pd¯p hn«n-cn-¡p-ó-Xv.

ssk_o-cn-bm-bnse aªp ae-I-fn-te¡v Zi-e-£-§sf \mSp IS¯n 97 Un{Kn skðjykv hsc-bpÅ s]mÅpó aªn-te¡v Xp¸ð t]mepw \ne¯p hogpw apt¼ Dd-ªp t]mIpóp {]tZ-iw. 1937 þ 38 Ifnð 80 e£w P\-§sf Ìmensâ `oIc `c-W-IqSw AdÌv sNbvXp. AXnð 10 e£w t]À DS³ h[n-¡-s¸-«p. 20 e£w t]À XS-h-d-I-fnð `oIc aÀ±-\-§Ä¡v hnt[-b-cmbn sImñ-s¸-«p.

""sk³{Sð Ìmän-änIv _yqtdm Hm^v tkmhn-bäv bqWn-b³'' ]pd¯p hn« IW¡p-IÄ {]Imcw 1938 ð Xsó Hóc tImSn \nc-]-cm-[n-IÄ h[n¡-s¸-s«-ómWv djy³ am²y-a-§Ä dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXXv.

djy-bnð ISp¯ cïp £ma-§-fp-ïm-bn. AXn-semóv Ìmen³ Ir{Xn-a-ambn krjvSn-¨-Xm-bn-cp-óp. 1921 þ 22 hsc Bbn-cpóp BZys¯ £maw. 50 e£w t]À ]«nWn aqew acn-¡p-Itbm tcmK i¿-bn-em-Ip-Itbm sNbvXp. Cu Ime-b-f-hnð IÀj-I-cpsS [m\y-§Ä ssk\ys¯ D]-tbm-Kn¨p P]vXn sN¿n¡pI-bp-ïm-bn.

cïm-as¯ £maw 1932 þ 33 hsc Bbn-cp-óp. Ipem-¡p-Isf (Hcp IÀjI hn`m-Kw) hwi hntOZw sN¿p-hm-\pÅ Ìmensâ IpX-{´-¯nsâ A\-´c ^ew Bbn-cpóp Cu sImSnb £maw.

""Dt{I-\n-b³'' P\X CXns\ tlmtfm-tUm-aÀ FómWv hnfn-¡p-ó-Xv. AXm-bXv ÌmÀth-j³ Po\n-tbm-sskkv (]-«n-Wn-bn-«pÅ Iq«-s¡me) A§s\ Ìmensâ `oIc `cW IqSw Dt{I-\n-b³ P\-s¯bpw ]«n-Wn¡n«p sImóp. 22 e£w P\-§Ä ChnsS hnióp acn-¨p.

tdm_À«v lph-dnsâ t\Xr-Xz-¯n-epÅ Ata-cn-¡³ klmbw Cñm-bn-cp-óp-sh-¦nð acW kwJy CXnepw hÀ²n-¡p-am-bn-cpóp FómWv IW-¡p-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-ó-Xv. Fómð AXn\v tijw Cu klmbw djy³ Kh¬saânsâ klm-b-I-am-sWóp {]tLm-jn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Fómð ]nóoSv C¡m-cy-¯nð Ata-cn-¡-tbmSp kl-I-cn-¨-hsc Pbn-ene-S-¡p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS PohnXw AhnsS Ah-km-\n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. CXv Ata-cn-¡³ klm-b-am-sW-ó-dn-ªXmWv AhÀ sNbvX Ipäw.

hnióp acn-¡pó Ip«n-IÄ, Ah-cpsS arXico-c-¯nð sI«n-¸p-WÀóv hni¸v sImïp Ic-bp-hm³ t]mepw {XmWn-bn-ñm¯ A½-amÀ. ]mX-tbm-c-§-fnð arX ico-c-§Ä Ipanªp IqSn. ]«mf hïn-IÄ XSn¡j-W-§Ä t]mse arX icoc-§Ä hen¨p Iq«n Iq«-t¯msS Ipgn¨p aqSn. aX-¯n-s\-Xn-sc-bpÅ bp²-¯nepw At\I e£-§sf XpS¨p amän.

]ptcm-ln-X-òmsc Hó-S¦w sImsóm-Sp-¡n. ]Ån-I-sfñmw XIÀ¯p. B{ia§fpw skan-\m-cn-Ifpw AS¨p ]q«n. `oIc aÀ±-\-§fpw Iq«-s¡m-e-Ifpw Ncn-{X-]-c-amb Bh-iy-am-sWóv I½yq-Wnkw Icp-Xn. I½yq-Wnkw ]d-bp-óp. Bh-iy-an-ñm-¯-hsc Cñm-Xm-¡p-I. hÀ¤ i{Xp-¡sf \in-¸n-¡pI. (F-en-ant\-j³ Hm^v A¬kn-d-_nÄ: ¢mÊv F\nan jpÄUv _n Fen-an-t\-äUv þ (tIzm-t«Uv {^w slð Hm¬ FÀ¯v) ss_ epUvhnt¡m-hðkIn þ F t^mÀaÀ Ìmen-\nÌv.

`oIc aÀ±\w kln-¡msX hcp-t¼mÄ `mcytbm `Àt¯mthm ]dbpw Fsâ ]¦mfn tÌänsâ i{Xp-hm-sW-óv. DS³ Xsó ]¦mfn Ad-Ìn-emIpw At¸mÄ ]mÀ«n-¡mÀ ]dbpw HcmÄ Xsâ `mcy-sb-¡m-fp-]cn, `À¯m-hn-s\-¡m-fp-]cn I½yq-Wn-ks¯ kvt\ln-¡p-óp Fóv!

KÀ_t¨m-hnsâ Ime¯v Ìmen³ `oI-c-X-bnse Nne tcJ-IÄ ]pd¯p sImïp hóp. AXm-bXv Iq«-s¡m-e-bpsS Nnehv Ipd-bv¡p-hm³ thïn shSn-bp-ïIÄ do ssk¡nÄ sNbvsX-Sp-¡p-I-bp-ïm-bn. _pÅävkv shbÀ dossk-¡nÄUv Sq temhÀ tImÌv InñnwKv þ slð Hm¬ FÀ¯v.

Ir{Xna £maw tIm¬k¬t{S-j³ Iym¼pIÄ, {Iqc ]oU-\-§Ä, \nÀ_-ÔnX tPmen-IÄ, ssk_o-cn-b³ ae-I-fn-te-bv¡pÅ sUXv amÀ¨v A§s\ \oïp t]mIpóp `oIc-X-IÄ.

sIPn-_n-bpsS Hcp tÌävsaânð 712000 BfpIsf kv{XoIfpw Ip«n-Ifpw DÄs¸sS shSn-h¨p am{Xw sIme-s¸-Sp¯n Fóv tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-óp. Fómð B[p-\oI P\-kwJym hnZ-Kv²-cpsS IW-¡p-IÄ D{I-bn-\nð am{Xw 22 e£w P\-§Ä £maw aqew hnióp acn¨p FómWv kqNn-¸n-¡p-ó-Xv. Ncn-{X-Im-c-òmÀ CXv 30 þ 35 e£-ambpw am²y-a-§fpw cmjv{So-b-¡mcpw ac-W -kwJy AXnð IqSp-X-embpw IW-¡m-¡p-óp.

cmjv{Sob XSp-hp-Imsc \á-cm¡n ac-¯nð sI«n-¯q¡n sImXp-Ip-IÄ¡v `£-Wambn \ðIn Côn-ômbn sIme sNbvXp. Ìmensâ Ime¯v Iq«-s¡me sNbvX \nc-]-cm-[n-IÄ¡v thïn djy-bnse aK-Z³ Fó Øe¯v Hcp hnem] kvXw`w P\-§Ä ]Sp-¯p-bÀ¯n-bn-«p-ïv.

c£-s¸« Hcp XS-hp-Im-c³ cl-ky-ambn Fgp-Xnb hnhc-§-fnð \nóv 1933 amÀ¨v Adp-\qdv cmjv{Sob XS-hp-Imsc hS¡p tZi-¯pÅ J\n {]tZ-i-t¯bv¡v \S¯n sImïp t]mbn. 370 ssaep-IÄ sImSpw aªn-eq-sS-bpÅ bm{X. cm{Xn Ime-§-fnð aªp ]mfn-Ifmð \nÀ½n-X-amb IqSm-c-§-fnð ]mÀ¯p. bm{Xm at²y ac-hn¨p acn-¨-hsc lna-KÀ¯§-fntebv¡v hen-s¨-dn-ªp. Ahsc icn-bmbn kwkvIcn-¡m³ t]mepw A\p-h-Zn-¨n-ñ. ]n³ \nc-I-fnð Ah-i-cmbpw arX-{]m-b-cmbpw \Só-hsc shSn-h¨p hogv¯n. C¯-c-¯n-epÅ sUXv amÀ¨p-I-fnð At\-Im-bn-c-§Ä acn¨p hoWp.

t{]X-I-¸-ep-IÄ

1932 apXð djy-bnse \K-tPhv Xpd-ap-J¯v \nóv I¸-ep-IÄ Ønc-ambn bm{X Bcw-`n-¨p. Cu I¸-ep-I-fnð Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\v XS-hp-Imsc Ip¯n \nd-¨n-cp-óp. Iem]w DïmIm-Xn-cn-¡p-hm³ sajn³ K®p-Ifpambn KmÀUp-IÄ ]Xn-bn-cp-óp. Akp-k-c-W-tISp ImWn-¡p-ó-hÀ¡pÅ sImSpw in£ \ðIn. AXm-bXv XWp¯v ac-hn¨ kap-{ZPew ico-c-¯n-te¡v ]¼p sN¿pI Fó in£. GA-Xmïv 9 e£w P\-§sf Cu AXn-I-Tn-\-amb ssiXy taJ-e-bn-te¡v XÅn-hn-«p. AXnð 35% t]cpw ac-W-a-S-ªp.

cïmw temI alm bp²-¯n\v tijw t]mf-ïv, dpta-\n-b, _mÄ«nIv tÌäv XpS-§nb cmPy-§-fnð \nóv e£-¡-W-¡n-\pÅ P\-§sf ssk_o-cn-b³ te_À Iym¼p-I-fn-te-¡-b-¨p. At\I e£-§sf shSn-h¨p sImóp.

sImeym-a-bnse djy³ J\n-I-fn-tebv¡v 20 e£w cmjv{Sob XS-hp-Imsc Ab-¨p. ChnsS 97 þ 98 Un{Kn F^v ssiXy-¯nð At\I e£-§Ä Ns¯m-Sp-§n. 1953 ð Ìmensâ ac-W-t¯mSp IqSn tijn-¨-hÀ Xncn-s¨-¯n. ]mÝm-XyÀ¡v AXp-hgn kôcn-¡p-hm³ \nb-a-an-ñm-bn-cp-óp. tKmÀº-t¨m-hnsâ Ime-¯mWv AhnsS \Só `oI-c-X-IÄ Ipd-s¨ms¡ A\m-h-cWw sN¿-s¸-«-Xv.

Aem-kvI-bpsS FXnÀh-i-¯pÅ djy³ {]tZiw temI-¯nse Gähpw sImSpw ssiXyw \ndª {]tZ-i-amWv e£-¡-W-¡n\v P\-§sf Cu sImSpw ssiXy-¯nse J\n-Ifntebv¡v \nÀ_-ÔnX the-IÄ¡mbn XÅn-hn-«p. Ìmensâ Imes¯ Gähpw hn]p-ehpw `oI-c-hp-am-b Iym¼m-bn-cpóp Cu sImeyma Iym¼v. AhnsS am{Xw 12 e£-t¯mfw t]À arXn-b-S-ªp. Ìmensâ `c-W-IqSw sImsóm-Sp-¡nb P\-§-fpsS kwJy-sb-¸än djy³ Ncn-{X-Im-c-òmÀ X½nð `nó-X-bpïv. djy³ {]kn-²o-I-c-W-§Ä A\p-k-cn¨v AXv aqóp tImSn-tbmfw hcpw.

aäp a\pjytcmSv kz´w a\-Ên-epÅ Imcy-§Ä kwkm-cn-¡p-hm³ t]mepw djybnð P\-§Ä¡v Ah-Im-i-an-ñm-bn-cp-óp. AYhm kwkm-cn-¨mð AXnsâ ]cn-WnX ^ew `bm-\-I-am-bn-cp-óp.

sdmta-\n-bm-bnð am{Xw Hcp e£w clky s]meokv Dïm-bn-cp-óp. Bsc-¦nepw Hcp hntZ-in-tbmSp kwkm-cn-¨mð AXv 24 aWn-¡q-dn-\Iw dnt¸mÀ«v sNbvXn-cn-¡Ww ssS¸v ssdäÀ t]mepw dnt¸mÀ«p sNbvXn-cn¡-Ww. t]¸-dn\v Ir{Xna £maw Dïm¡nbXv -sImïv ZuÀe`yw t\cn-«p. AXp-sImïv Bcpw Bh-iy-ap-ÅtXm Cñm-¯tXm Bb Imcy-§Ä Fgp-Xp-I-bnñ ]{Xw, tdUn-tbm, aäp am²y-a§Ä Fñmw I½yq-Wn-ks¯ ]pI-gv¯p-óh am{Xw. sdmta-\n-bm-bnse ZmcpW cwK-§Ä {KÙ-Im-c³ hnh-cn-¡p-óp.

Westerners who Stayed in the foregin Currency hotels of Bucharest in the dead of winter were unnerved to find ordinary Romanian watching hungrily through the street level windows of the dining room while the ate I bid page 191

sdmta-\n-bm-bnse hntZi tlm«-ep-I-fnð ]mÝm-XyÀ `£n¨p sImïn-cp-ó-t¸mÄ km[m-c-W-¡m-cm-b sdmta-\n-bm-¡mÀ P\m-e-I-fn-eqsS BÀ¯n-tbmsS t\m¡n \nð¡pó ZmcpW cwKw Iïv AhÀ kvXw_v²-cm-bn-t¸mbn.

P\-§Ä¡v {]`m-X-¯n\v ap³]v Xsó IS-I-fnð Iyq \nð¡Ww. saUn-¡ð tÌmdp-Ifnð acp-óp-Ifnñ. hr² P\-§Ä¡v sshZy klmbw hfsc Ipd-hv. ImcWw Ahsc C\n-bpw tÌän\v Bhiyan-ñ. ss__nÄ Bsc-¦nepw ssIhiw h¨mð ISp¯ in£. hntZ-in-I-tfmSp t]mepw s]meokv ss__nÄ Dtïm Fóv At\z-jn-¡pw. Hcp ]«-W¯nð \nóv asämcp ]«-W-¯n-te-bv¡v t]mIp-hm³ P\-§Ä¡v AhIm-i-an-ñm-bn-cp-óp.

A§s\ \mhn-s\bpw \mUn-sbbpw hcnªp apdn¡n t\mhpó a\-Êp-Isf ASn-¨-aÀ¯n amSp-I-sf-t¸mse ]Wnsb-Sp-¡p-hm³ am{Xw Adn-bm-hpó {]Xn-IcWw Fs´-ó-dn-bm¯ Hcp P\X I½yq-WnÌv cmPy-§-fnð cq]m-´-c-s¸-«p.

`oIc aÀ±-\-§-fnð Gähpw `bm-\-I-amb tI{µ-§-fm-bn-cpóp tkmhn-bäv sskt¡m {]nk-Wp-IÄ. I½yq-WnÌv hyh-Øn-Xn-sbbpw t\Xm-¡³am-cpsS sNbvXn-I-sfbpw FXnÀ¡pó _p²n Pohn-I-sfbpw hna-X-scbpw \nÀ_-ÔnX am\-knI NnIn-Õ-IÄ¡mbn Pbn-e-d-I-fn-e-b-¨p. sskt¡m {]nk¬ Fó-dn-b-s¸-Spó Cu Pbn-e-d-I-fnð sImSnb am\-knI ]oU-\-¯n\v AhÀ Cc-bm-bn. I½yq-WnÌv hyh-ØnXns¡Xnsc Bsc-¦nepw Dcn-bm-Sn-bmð AhÀ¡v am\-knI tcmK-ambpw Ahsc at\m-tcmKn-Ifmbpw ap{Z Ip¯n {Iqc-amb Ce-Iv{SnIv tjm¡n\v hnt[-b-cm-¡n. Xe-t¨m-dn-eqsS ssl thmÄt«Pv sshZypXn IS¯n hn«v at\m-tcm-Kn-Isf NnIn-Õn-¡pó coXn-bv¡mWv tjm¡v {Soävsaâv Fóv ]d-bp-ó-Xv. am{X-añ henb A{I-a-hm-k-\-bpÅ tcmKn-I-fpsS IqsS Ahsc skñn-S-bv¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

se\nsâ Ime¯v \qdp IW¡n\v ]Ån-IÄ XIÀ¯p. djy³ inð¸ Ie-bpsS kpµ-c-§-fmb {]Xn-_nw-_-§-fm-bn-cpóp B tZhm-e-b-§Ä. aX ta[m-hn-I-sfbpw t\Xm-¡-òm-scbpsañmw I½yq-WnÌv tÌänsâ kvXpXn ]mTIÀ B¡n amän. samWm-kv{Sn-IÄ Fñmw AS¨p ]q«n.

Fómð 193 Ifnð Ìmen³ hÀ²nX hocy-t¯msS ]Xn-\m-bn-c-¡-W-¡n\v ]Ån-IÄ XIÀ¯p. At\-Im-bncw ]ptcm-ln-Xsc \nÀ±m-£-Wyw sImsóm-Sp-¡n. Iem `wKn¡p temI {]ikvXn BÀÖn¨ sk³{Sð tamkvt¡m-bnse tkthygvkv I¯o-{Uð Ub-\-anäv h¨p XIÀ¯p. At¸mÄ cq]w {]m]n¨ Hcp Ipgn-bnð \nóv Hcp \ocp-dh ]pd-s¸«p hóp. s\t¸m-fnbsâ B{I-a-¯nð \nópw A{]-Xo-£n-X-ambn djysb c£n-¨Xnsâ IrX-ÚXm kqN-I-ambn \nÀ-½n¨ Hcp at\m-lc tZhm-e-b-am-bn-cpóp tkthygvkv I¯o-{Uð.

(s\t¸m-fn-bsâ B{I-a-W-¯nð \nópw djysb c£n-¨Xv djy³ hnâÀ Bbn-cp-óp. s\t¸m-fn-bsâ aptó-ä-¯nð djy³ ssk\yw XIÀóp Xcn-¸-W-am-bn. Fómð d-jy-³ hnâ-dnsâ t\c-s¯-bpÅ B{I-W-¯nð s{^ôp ssk\yw A§s\ BsI \in-¨p. A§s\ djy c£-s¸-«p. cïmw temI alm-bp-²-¯nepw djysb c£n-¨Xv djy³ hnâÀ Bbn-cp-óp. Npgen sImSpw-¦mäp-t]mse djy-bpsS lrZ-b-¯n-tebv¡v PÀ½³ ssk\yw Cc-¼n¡-b-dnb PÀ½³ Sm¦p-IfpsSbpw ]oc-¦n-I-fp-sSbpw ap³]nð djy³ {]Xn-tcm-[n-IÄ No«p tIm«-IÄ t]mse XIÀóp Xcn-¸-W-am-bn. Ahn-sSbpw djy³ hnâÀ BWv \mkn-I-fpsS {Iqc-X-Ifnð \nópw djysb c£n-¨-Xv. GXmïv Hcp amkw ap³t] B hÀjw hnâÀ Bcw-`n-¨p. 40 þ 50 Un{Kn skðjyknepÅ hnâÀ Xm§m-\m-hmsX Chn-sSbpw PÀ½-\n-bpsS h¼n¨ ssk\nI hyql-§Ä ]qÀ®-ambpw \in¨p Fóp ]d-bmw)

]nóoSv {Iptjhpw Ìmensâ tPmen ]qÀ¯n-bm¡n tijn¨ ]Ån-Ifpw AS¨p ]q«n. ss__nÄ IÀi-\-ambpw \ntcm-[n-¨p.

ap¸Xv hÀjs¯ Ìmensâ `oIc `c-W-¯nse Nne kw`-h-§Ä am{X-amWv tKmÀº-t¨mhv A\m-h-cWw sNbvX-Xv. djy-bnse h\-§-fnð Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\v AØn-Iq-S-§Ä AS¡w sNbvX At\Iw IpgnIÄ Isï¯n (amkv t{Khvkv) Xebv¡v shSn-tbäp acn-¨-hÀ, hoÀ¸p-an«n acn-¨hÀ, Poh-t\msS Ipgn-¨p-aq-S-s¸-«-hÀ, b{´-§Ä D]tbmKn-¨p hfs¨mSn¨pw sR¡n-sR-cp-¡nbpw sImñ-s¸-«-hÀ, Npaó \£-{X-¯n-tòð Xd¨p sImñ-s¸-«-hÀ, A§s\ sImSnb ]oU-\-¯n\v Cc-bmbn acn¨ ]Xn-\m-bn-c-¡-W-¡n\v \nc-]-cm-[n-IÄ Nne ico-c-§Ä apÅp I¼n-IÄ sImïv hcnªp apdp¡n henb Iñn-\-Sn-bnð h¨v sRcp-¡n sImñ-s¸-«-Xmbn ImW-s¸-«p.

djybnse Fñmw IpSpw-_-§Ä¡pw sR«n-¸n-¡pó Cu I½yq-WnÌv `oIcX-bpsS IY-IÄ ]d-bp-hm-\p-ïv. Ft¸mÄ thW-sa-¦nepw IXInð ap«pó i_vZw {]Xo-£n-¡mw. ]nXm-thm, amXm-thm, ]p{X-t\m, ]p{Xntbm, cm{Xn-bpsS GXp bma-¯nð thW-sa-¦nepw ]nSn-¡-s¸-Smw. bm{X ]d-bp-hm³ Aôp an\näv kabw In«pw. B lX-`m-Kysc ]nóoSv Hcn-¡epw Isï-¯p-I-bn-ñ. Xe-ap-d-bnð \nóv Xe-ap-d-bn-te¡v I®p\oÀ HgpIn.

AdÌp sN¿-s¸« kv{XoIfpsS Imcy-amWv Gähpw Zb-\obw. AhÀ sImSnb _em-Õ-K-¯n\v Cc-bm-bn. sdUv KmÀUp-Isf Xr]vXn-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm³ AhÀ¡v Fñmw XyPn-t¡ïn hóp. kJm-¡Ä Ahsc `oIc-ambn NqjWw sNbvXp. \á-cm¡n ]tcUv \S-¯pI XpS-§nb {Iqc hnt\m-Z-§Ä kJm-¡-fpsS ]Xn-hm-bn-cpóp.

djy-bnð thiym-hr¯n s]cp-In. Bbn-c-¡-W-¡n\v s]¬Ip«n-IÄ CXv A´-kpÅ tPmen-bmbn Icp-Xn. kJm-¡fpw ]mÀ«n s]meokpw Chsc Bhp-ó{X NqjWw sNbvXp. Ip«n-IÄ¡v AhpsS amXm-]n-Xm-¡Ä Fhn-sS-bm-sW-tóm, Bcm-sWtóm Adn-bn-ñm-bn-cn-¡mw. A§s\ I½yq-WnÌv \pI-¯n³ Iognð Bßo-bambpw kòmÀ¤o-I-ambpw cmPyw XIÀóp. km¼-¯nIw XIÀóp. Irjn-IÄ \in¨p A§s\ Fñmw XIÀóv DuÀ² izmkw hen-¡pó cmPys¯ P\-§-fpsS càw Duän-sb-Sp¯v AWpt_mw-_p-Ifpw aäv bp² kma-{Kn-Ifpw anssk-ep-Ifpw Dïm-¡n. Ir{Xna £maw, Iq«-s¡m-e, \mSp-I-S-¯nð, `oIc aÀ±\w XpS-§n-bpÅ in£m coXn sImïv IÀjI hÀ¤s¯ HóS¦w Ìmen³ sImsóm-Sp¡n.

Hcp s]³ {^ïv hntZ-i-¯p-ïm-bXnsâ t]cnð t]mepw bphm-¡sf shSn-h¨p sIme-s¸-Sp-¯n. `mcysb `À¯m-hnsâ ap¼n-en«p ITn\-ambn a\À±n-¨p. ]p{Xn-amsc ]nXm-hnsâ ap¼n-en«p _em-ÕwKw sNbvXp X§Ä {]Øm-\-¯n-s\-Xn-cm-bn-cpópshóv Gäp ]d-bn¨p. se\n³ {KmUnse Hcp Pbn-enð \nóv càw HmS-I-fn-eqsS HgnIn t\hm \Z-bnð ]Xn-¨-Xmbn Nn{XIm-c³ km£ys¸-Sp-¯póp.
 
Fñm Znh-khpw Bbn-c§-fpsS Iq«-s¡m-ebv¡v Ìmen³ H¸p h¨n-cp-óp. 1937 se Hcp Znhkw Ìmen\pw samtfm-t«mhpw IqSn 3167 t]À¡pÅ h[-in£ H¸p-h¨ tijw kn\na ImWp-hm³ t]mb-Xmbn {KÙ-Im-c³ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-óp.
 
F´n\v I½yq-WnÌv Ime-b-f-hnð a®n-c-Ifpw, Cub-ep-I-fpw, NnX-ep-I-fpw, tXfns\ hscbpw `£n¨v a\p-jyÀ hni-¸-S-¡n. hnióp hm ]nf-cpó Ip«n-Isf sImó tijw A½-amÀ Bß-lXy sNbvX [mcmfw kw`-h-§-Ä djy-bn-ep-ïm-bn.

\mkn-I-fpsS `oI-c-Xsb AXn Pohn¨p sImïv djy-bnð \nópw Ing-¡³ PÀ½-\n-bn-se-¯nb tkmhn-bäv ssk\n-IÀ A¼-cpóp t]mbn. t_mw_p-IÄ XIÀ¯p Xcn-¸-W-am-¡nb PÀ½-\n-bnse P\-§-fpsS PohnX coXn t]mepw X§-fp-tS-Xn-\m-¡Ä hfsc hfsc sa¨-amsWóv Ah-À a\-Ên-em-¡n. ]pdw temIw Iï Cu P\X tkmhn-bäv t\Xr-Xzs¯ ]cn-{`m´n-bm-en-¡n.

At\Iw tkmhnbäv ssk\n-IÀ Bwt¥m Ata-cn-¡³ tkmWpIfnð A`bw tXSn. Xnc-s¨-¯nb ssk\o-Isc djybv¡v thïn Poh³ _en-bÀ¸n¨v AS-cm-Sn-b-hsc kqjva \oco-£-W-¯n\v hnt[-b-cm-I-hp-Ibpw At\-Isc te_À Iym¼p-I-en-tb¡v Ab-bv¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AhÀ {ItaW A{]-Xy-£-cm-bn. bp²w sNbvXp Ing-¡³ PÀ½-\n-bn-se-¯nb AhÀ PÀ½-\n-bnse PohnX coXn X§-fp-tS-Xn-t\-¡mÄ hfsc sa¨-am-sWóv a\-Ên-em-¡n-b-XmWv AhÀ sNbvX Ipäw (sd-^-d-³kv ]mc-{Km-^v AÀa-K-U³ AthÀäUv (tkm-hn-bäv tImfm-¸mkv 1970 þ 2000) ss_ Ìo^³ tIm«vIn³.

1961 ð bpF-ónsâ thZn-bnð \nóv ]mÝmXy cmPy-§-tfmSv {Iqtjhv Ae-dn. We Will bury you ]s£ AhÀ kzbw Ipgn¨p aqS-s¸-«p.

I½yq-WnÌv kzÀ¤-¯nð \nópÅ Iq«-]m-em-b\w \nb-{´n-¡p-hm-\mWv {Iptjhnsâ Ime¯v _Àen³ `n¯n ]Sp-¯p-bÀ¯n-b-Xv. Ing-¡³ PÀ½-\n-bnð \nópw kzmX-{´y-¯nsâ temI-¯n-tebv¡v P\§Ä Iq«-t¯msS Hgnªp t]mIp-hm³ XpS-§n. Hmtcm hÀjhpw Hcp e£w, Aôp e£w, ]¯p e£w Fón-§s\ Iq«-¸m-em-b-\-¯nsâ tXmXv hÀ²n¨p XpS-§n. CXp XS-bp-hm³ thïn 858 ssað ssZÀLy-apÅ Hcp h³ aXnð ]Sp-¯n-bÀ¯n. A§s\ _Àen³ cïmbn hn`-Pn-¡-s¸-«p. I½yq-WnÌv km{amPyw A§s\ Ccp¼p ad-bv¡p-Ån-em¡n. apÅp I¼n-IÄ, ssa³ taJ-eIÄ, InS-§p-IÄ sshZypXn I¼n then-IÄ, aäp ac-W-s¡-Wn-IÄ XpS-§n-bh sImsïñmw AXnÀ¯n `{Z-am¡n. Hfn Iyma-dm-Ifpw 24 aWn-¡qdpw tdm´p Npäpóp sdUv KmÀUp-Ifpw sajo³ K®p-ambn ]Xn-bn-cn-¡pó clky s]meo-kp-Imcpw Fñmw Hcp ]£n t]mepw ]Sn-ªm-td-b¡p ]d-¡p-I-bn-ñm¯ c£m Ih-N-ambn \ne sImïp.

Fón«pw P\-§Ä ac-W-s¯bpw `oIc aÀ±-\-§-sfbpw apónð Iïp sImïp Xsó AXnÀ¯n ISóp. `qan-¡-Sn-bn-eqsS Xpc-¦§Ä Dïm-¡nbpw ss¥U-dp-IÄ hgn-bmbpw [mcmfw t]À c£-s¸-«p.

Ing-¡³ PÀ½-\n-bnð Hcp Intem Dcp-f-¡n-g§v thW-sa-¦nð Hcp aWn-¡qÀ Iyq \nð¡-Ww. Hcp d{^n-Ptd-äÀ thW-sa-¦nð Hcp hÀjw Im¯n-cn-¡-Ww. Npcp¡w Bfp-IÄ¡v am{Xta hmjnwKv anjt\m {^nUvtPm hm§p-hm-\pÅ km¼-¯nIw ImWp-I-bp-Åq.

djy³ \K-c-§-fnð aqóp Xe-ap-d-bpÅ IpSpw-_§Ä hsc Hcp apdn¡p-Ånð Pohn-¨p. tSmbve-äp-I-fnð hsc Iyq \nðt¡ï KXn-tISv temI-¯nð Hcp P\-Xbv¡pw hón-«n-ñ. A\-kvtXyjy CñmsX tcmKn-IÄ¡v Hm¸-td-j³ \S-t¯-ïnb KXn-tISpw Hcp cmPy¯pw kw`-hn-¨n-«n-ñ AXpw djy-bnð kw`-hn-¨p. ]Ån-bnð h¨v hnhmlw Ign¡p-hm³ t]mepw AhÀ¡v A\p-hmZw Cñm-bn-cp-óp.

A§s\ `mhn-sb-¸än Hcp {]Xo-£-bpan-ñmsX amSpI-sf-t¸mse AhÀ Pohn-¨p.

djy³ P\X ]d-bpóp.(R-§-fpsS hn[n aämÀ¡pw kw`-hn-¡m-Xn-cn-¡s« I½yq-Wnkw \pW-bpsS Iq\-tað ]Sp-¯p-bÀ¯n-bn-cn-¡p-óp)

I½yq-WnÌv kn²m-´-s¯tbm ]mÀ«n t\Xm-¡-òm-sctbm Ah-cpsS sNbvXn-IÄs¡-Xn-sctbm Bsc-¦nepw Hc-£cw F§m\pw Dcn-bm-Sn-bmð AhÀ te_À Iym¼p-I-en-tebvt¡m ssk_o-cn-bm-bn-tebvt¡m XÅ-s¸Spw. AX-sñ-¦nð sskt¡m {]nk-Wp-I-fnð AS-bv¡-s¸-Spw. am{X-añ AhpsS kv{XoIsf {Iqc-ambn _em-ÕKw sN¿p-Ibpw sN¿pw.

a\p-jysâ \mh-S-¡m³ ]mÀ«n t\Xm¡-òmÀ Iï Gähpw {Iqchpw ss]imNn-I-hp-amb Bbp-[-am-bn-cpóp _emw-Õ-Kw. sdUv KmÀUp-Isf CXn-\mbn \ntbm-Kn-¨p.

Cw¥-ïnse cmP-Ip-amcn AanX thK-¯nð hïn-tbm-Sn-¨-Xn\v tImSXn in£n¨ hmÀ¯ djy³ ]{X-§-fnð hmbn-¨n«v djy-¡mÀ Bcpw AXp hniz-kn-¨n-ñ. AhÀ {]I-Sn-¸n¨ kwi-b-§Ä CXm-bn-cp-óp.

1. cmP-Ip-amcn kzbw Imtdm-Snt¨m?
2. Hcp km[m-cW {Sm^nIv s]meo-kp-Im-c³ Ahsf XSªp \nÀ¯mt\m AhÄs¡-Xnsc tIkv FSp¡p-hmt\m ss[cyw Im«ntbm?
3. tImSXn Ahsf in£n-¡p-hmt\m hnNm-cW \S-¯p-hmt\m ss[cy-s¸t«m?

djy³ P\-Xbv¡v C§s\ Hcp kw`hw k¦ð¸n-¡p-hm³ t]mepw km[n-¡p-I-bn-ñm-bn-cp-óp. Ata-cn-¡-¡mÀ N{µ-\nð Imep Ip¯nb hnhcw `qcn]£w djy-¡mcpw AdnªXv tKmÀº-t¨m-hnsâ Imem-¯m-bn-cp-óp.

I½yqWnk¯nsâ A´yw

1989 HmKÌv amk-¯nð ]¯v e£w Bfp-IÄ ]s¦-Sp¯ Hcp a\pjy¨§e cq]m-´-c-s¸-«p. bmsXmcp Blzm-\tam t{]c-Wtbm Hóp-an-ñmsX P\-§Ä sXcp-hn-te-s¡m-gp-In. I½yq-WnÌv `oIc-X-bvs¡-Xnsc djy³ P\-X-bpsS Hcp \ni_vZ {]Xn-I-c-W-am-bn-cpóp Cu a\pjy¨-§-e. Smen-\nð XpS§n FtÌm-Wn-bm, dnKm, emäzn-bm, hnð\yqkv XpS-§nb hnZqc Øe-§-sfbpw ]«-W-§-sfbpw _Ôn¨v sImïv enXzn-\n-bm-bpsS AXnÀ¯n-¡-¸pdw hsc 370 ssaep-IÄ \of-¯nð AXv \ne-sIm-ïp. Ah-cpsS ap{Zm-hmIyw Hóp am{X-am-bn-cp-óp: {^oUw

1991 ð tKmÀº-t¨mhv A[nIm-c-¯n-se-¯n-b-t¸mÄ tkmhn-bäv bqWn-b³ GXmïv s]m«n-s¯-dn-bpsS h¡n-se-¯n-bn-cp-óp. `£n-¡p-hm³ hI-bn-ñmsX P\-¯n\p {`m´p ]nSn-¡pó Ah-Ø-bn-te¡v kml-N-cy-§Ä amdn. am{X-añ Hcp `bm-\I-amb A`y´ bp²-¯nsâ h¡n-tebv¡v tkmhn-bäv bqWn-b³ hgpXn hogp-hm³ `mhn-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-óp. A§s\ ]nSn-¨-S¡n h¨n-cpó cmPy-§Ä Hsóm-ómbn N§-e-IÄ s]m«n-s¨-dnªv kzmX{´yw {]m]n¨p. tkmhn-bäv bqWn-b³ 15 cmPy-§-fmbn s]m«n-¨nX-dn.

1991 Unkw-_À 25 mw XobXn {InkvXp-aÊv Zn\-¯nð I½yq-WnÌv NnÓ-amb Acn-hmfpw Npän-Ibpw Bte-J\w sNbvX ]XmI {Iwen³ tIm«-bnð \nó `qan-bn-te¡v XmWp ]Icw ]pXnb djybpsS Npa-e, shÅ, \oe hÀ®-§-tfmSp IqSnb ]XmI Hcp ]pXp-bp-K-¯nsâ Bcw`w Ipdn¨p sImïv hm\n-te-bv¡p-bÀóp.
 
P\§Ä BÀ-¯p-hn-fn¨pþ R-§Ä C-t¸mÄ se-\n³ {Km-Un-eñ \nð-¡p-óXv. skâv ]o-tä-gv-kv \K-cw a-lm-{]-Xm-]-t¯m-sS ho-ïpw D-bnÀ-s¯-gp-tóð-¡pw.

H-cp hÀ-jw ap-¼v tKmÀ-_-t¨-hv Np-a-ó ]p-jv-]-§Ä A-Wn-bn-¨ se-sâ {]Xn-a P-\-§Ä X-IÀ¯p. A-Xp \n-ón-cp-ó Ø-e-¯n-sâ A-Sn-¯-d h-sc am´n. d-jy³ ko-{I-«v t]m-eo-kn-sâ Øm-]-I³ s^-en-Iv-kv U-jn³ kv-Io-bp-sS {]-Xn-abpw P-\w A-Sn-¨p-X-IÀ¯p. Ìm-en-sâ Np-a-ó amÀ-_n-fn-ep-Å {]Xn-a P-\-§Ä X-IÀ-¡p-Ibpw hr-² kv-{Xo-IÄ A-Xn-\p-tað I-b-dn-bn-cp-óv aq{X-sam-gn-¡p-Ibpw sN-bvXp.

A§-s\ G-Xm-ïv 74 hÀ-j-¡m-ew d-jy-sb am-{Xañ, temI-s¯ X-só {K-kn-¨n-cp-ó `-bm-\-Iamb B hn-]¯vþ I-½yp-Wn-kw F-ó \-c-I-km-{amPyw d-jy³ a-®nð a-cn-¨p-hoWp. I-½yp-Wn-k-¯n-sâ D-cp-¡p I-h-N-¯nð InS-óv izm-kw ap«n-b d-jy³ P-\-X kzm-X-{´-¯n-sâ kp-{]-`m-Xw Iïp. d-jy P-\m-[n]-Xy hy-h-Øn-Xn-bn-te-¡v IS-óp I-b-dp-Ibpw sN-bvXp.

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ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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