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Sqdn-\nse I¨-bnð ]Xnª tbip-hnsâ cq]wþ teJ\w

Britishmalayali
t]mÄ aWvUew

tem-I -am-[y-a-§-fnð imkv-{X-ÚòmÀ ]p\-cm-hn-jvI-cn¨ tbip-hnsâ bYmÀ° cq]w Fóp ]dªp sImïv Hcp a\pjy cq]w {]Xy-£-s¸-«p. Có-t¯tbm Aó-t¯tbm blqZ P\-X-bpsS cq] kmZr-iy-§-fp-ambn hnZqc _Ôw t]mep-an-ñm¯ Hcp hnIrX cq]w.

Fómð tbip-hnsâ bYmÀ° cq]w F´m-bn-cpóp? Cóp ImWpó Xncp-lr-Zb cq]-t¯mSv Fs´-¦nepw kmZr-iy-ap-Å-Xm-bn-cp-ópthm tbip-hnsâ apJw? B cq]w hc-¨Xmcv? Cu teJ\w AXn-\p¯cw Xcp-óp.

F´mWv Sqdn-\nse I¨
Cä-en-bnse Sqdn³ I¯o-{U-enð \qäm-ïp-I-fmbn kq£n¨p hcpó 14 ASn \ofhpw aqó-c-bSn hoXn-bpapÅ Hcp en\³ hkv{Xw. AXnð arX-\mb Hcp a\p-jysâ \ngð cq]w ]Xn-ªn-cn-¡p-óp. B[p\nI imkv{X-¯n-sâ-bpw kmt¦-XnI hnZy-bp-sSbpw DuSpw ]mhpw thÀXn-cn-¨pÅ ]co-£W \nco-£W ]c-¼-c-IÄ¡p tijw clkyw Isï-¯m-\m-hm¯ Hcp ka-ky-bmbn \ne-sIm-Åpó B \ngð cq]w Bcp-tS-XmWv? AsX-§s\ cq]w sImïp?

B en\³ hkv{X-¯nsâ Ccp-]-Ip-Xn-I-fn-embn e£-Wsam¯ Hcp ]pcpj ico-c-¯nsâ ap³ þ ]n³ `mK-§Ä sXfnªp ImWp-óp. apSn tXmfäw hfÀóp InS-¡p-óp. ssIIm-ep-I-fnð \nópw h£-knse hÀ¯p-fm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ Hcp henb apdn-hnð \nópw cà-sam-gp-Inb ]mSp-IÄ. Imðap-«nð \nópw s\än-bnse At\Iw sNdp apdn-hp-I-fnð \nópw càw HgpIn-bn-«p-ïv. tZlw apgp-h\pw sNdnb apdn-hp-IfpsSbpw \qtdmfw A-Sn-Ifp-sSbpw ]mSp-I-fpw.

B[p-\nI imkv{X-¯nsâ kq£va t\{X-§Ä¡v t]mepw CXnð \nd-¡q-«p-Itfm ajntbm Fs´-¦nepw hÀt®m-±o-]\ hkvXp-¡tfm Isï¯phm³ Ign-ªn-«n-ñ. {_jnsâ \qð-¸mSv t]mepw Cñ.

CXv tbip-hnsâ icocw AS¡w sNbvX-t¸mÄ s]mXn-ªn-cpó I¨-bm-sWópw AXnð ImWpó a\pjy cq]w tb-ip--hn-tâ-Xm-sWópw Xe-ap-d-I-fmbn hniz-kn¨p t]mcp-óp.

]co-£-W-§Ä Bcw-`n-¡póp
1898 sabv 28 \mbn-cpóp Cu I¨-bpsS t^mt«m BZy-ambn Iyma-d-bnð ]IÀ¯n-b-Xv. UmÀIv dqanð s\K-äohv sXfn-ª-t¸mÄ sk¡³tUm]y Fó Cäm-en-b³ t^mt«m {Km^À AÛp-X-s¸«p t]mbn. en\³ hkv{X-¯nð Nn{Xw arX-am-sW-¦nð s\K-äo-hnð AXv Poh-Ñmb Nn{X-am-bn þ t]mknäohmbn amdn-bn-cn-¡p-óp. t^mt«m{Km^nIv s\K-äo-hnð CXp-t]m-semcp {]Xn`mkw Hcn-¡epw ImW-s¸-Sp-I-bn-ñ.

]nóoSv \Só ]co-£-W-§-fnð XpWn-bnse \ngð cq]w ]cn-]qÀ®-amb Hcp s\K-äohv Nn{X-am-sWóv sXfn-ªp. hn-Z-K-v[sc Gähpw AÛp-X-s¸-Sp-¯nb hkvXpX Cu Nn{X-¯nsâ {Xnam\ kz`mh-am-Wv. Hcp t^mt«mtbm Iem krjvSn-Itfm CXp-t]m-semcp kz`mhw ImWn-¡p-Ibn-ñ.

Ìpd-]v cq]-h-XvI-cn-¡póp
]nóoSv Hcp \qämïv \oïp \nó At\z-jW ]c-¼-c-IÄ¡v XpS¡w Ipdn¨v 'jvduUv Hm^v Spdn³ dntkÀ¨v t{]m{Kmw' Fsómcp imkv{X kwL-S\ cq]-s¸-Sp-¯n. imkv{X-¯nsâ Fñm taJ-e-I-fnepw s]« alm imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ Cu kwL-S-\-bn-eqsS ]co-£W \nco-£-§-fm-cw-`n-¨p.

Cu \ngð¨n{Xw I¼yq-«-dnð Hcp Nn{X-ambn tNÀ¯v tUm«p-I-fmbpw B tUm«p-IÄ i_vZ-ho-Nn-I-fmbpw cq]m-´-c-s¸-Sp¯n hoïpw I¼yq-«dpw hn]n 8 CtaPv A\-sse-kdpw D]-tbm-Kn¨v ]co-£Ww \S-¯n. At¸mgpw AÛpX-Ichpw Ahn-iz-k-\o-b-hp-amb {Xnam\ kz`mhw ImWn-¡p-Ibpw Snhn tamWn-ä-dnð aptóm«v D´n \nð¡pó {]XoXn {]I-S-am-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

]nóoSv Ata-cn-¡³ Ìpd]v imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ FIvkvtd Untbm-{Km-^v, ssat{Im t^mt«m-{Km^v XpS-§nb kmt¦-XnI D]-I-cW-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn¨v ]co-£Ww \S-¯n. CXv Hcp hymP Nn{X-a-sñópw GtXm {]Im-i-¯nsâ {]Xn-^-e-\-am-bn-«mWv Cu \ngð Nn{Xw cq]-s¸-«-sXópw AhÀ A´n-a-ambn hgn-sb-gp-Xn. kwLmw-K-amb blqZ imkv{X-Ú\pw CXp icn-h-¨p. ico-c-¯nsâ _mly `mKw am{X-añ ImWn-¡p-ó-Xv. Hcp FIvktd Nn{X-¯n-se-ó -t]mse ico-c-¯nsâ Nne B´-cnI `mK-§fpw Cu hkv{X-¯nð sXfnªp ImWp-óp. knUv\n bqWn-th-gvkn-än-bnse A\m-«\n {]^-kÀ ssa¡nÄ »ïsâ dnt¸mÀ«nð ssII-fnse saäm-ImÀ¸ð, ^m-e-³Pkv AØn-IÄ hyà-ambn ImWmsaóv Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-óp.

kq£va \nco-£Ww
]nóoSv ]mtXm-f-Pn-Ìp-IÄ, BÀtIym-f-Pn-Ìp-IÄ, ssat{Im _tbm-f-Pn-Ìp-IÄ, CtaPv A\-en-Ìp-IÄ, Hm]vän-¡ð ^nkn-Ìp-IÄ, kky imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ, \yq¢n-bÀ imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ XpS-§n Fñm taJ-e-I-fnepw s]« hnZKv² imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ CXp kw_Ôn¨v kq£va ]T\w Bw`n-¨p.

\qtdmfw ASnbpsS ]mSp-IÄ ico-c-¯nð ImWp-óp. Hmtcm ASn-¸mSpw 3. 7 sk. an. hen-¸-¯nð ""Uws_ð'' BIrXnbnð ImW-s¸-Sp-óp. Cu Hmtcm ]mSpw s\K-äohv Bbn-«mWv ImW-s¸-Sp-ó-Xv. ASn¨ Bfnsâ ssIIfpsS Bw-Knfpw Cu ]mSp-Ifpw imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ Xmc-Xayw sN¿p-Ibpw bmYmÀ°y-saóv {]Jym-]n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.

Ihnį-S-§Ä cïpw ASn-tbäp hnbÀ¯n-cn-¡p-óp. ]pdw tXmfp-IÄ GtXm `mc-ta-dnb hkvXp hln-¨Xv t]mse NX-ªn-cn-¡-óp.

ssIIfnse BWn¸-gp-Xp-I-fnð \nópw càw HgpInb AS-bm-fs¯ Kpcp-Xzm-IÀj-W-hp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvXp ]Sn-¨-Xnð \nóv 65 Un{Kn BwKn-fn-emWv Ipcn-inð Xd-bv¡-s¸-«-sXóv hyà-am-bn.

AÛpXIc-amb asämcp {]tXy-IX Cu Omb Nn{X-¯nð Ic-§-fnse aWn _Ô-¯n-emWv BWn-¸-gpXpw cà {kmhhpw ImW-s¸-Sp-ó-sX-óm-Wv. Aóp hsc-bpÅ Fñm Iem krjvSn-Ifpw DÅw ssII-fn-emWv BWn-¸-gpXp ImWn-¨n-cn-¡p-ó-Xv. ]c-¼-cm-K-X-amb hnizm-khpw AXp Xsó. Fómð DÅw ssII-fnð BWn ASn-¨mð amwkw Iodn {IqinX³ Xmsg hogpw. ssI¡p-g-en-em-sW-¦nð F{X `mcw thW-sa-¦nepw Xm§pw. 1930 ð tUm. ]otd _mÀ_äv Fó {^ôv kÀP³ BWv A\m-«-an-¡ð Bbn CXp sXfn-bn¨-Xv. en\³ hkv{X-¯nse BWn-¸-gp-Xp-IÄ CXp icn hbv¡p-óp.

h£-knse hÀ¯p-fm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ apdn-hn\v 4. 4 sk. an. hen-¸-ap-ïv. hoXn 1. 1 skâo-ao-ä-dpw. {]kn² kÀÖ-òmÀ A\m-«-an-¡ð IW¡p Iq«ð \S-¯n. Aôv B-dv hmcn-sb-ñp-IÄ-¡v CS-bn-eq-sS-bmWv £Xw Gän-cn-¡p-ó-sXóv sXfn-bn-¨p.

slÀ¡p-te-\n-bw Fó ]pcm-X\ tdma³ \K-c-¯nsâ Ah-in-jv-S-§Ä J\\w sNbvX-t¸mÄ Uws_ð BIr-Xn-epÅ tem-l¡jvWw LSn-¸n¨ N½-«n-IÄ e`n-¨p. amdnse hÀ¯p-fm-Ir-Xn-bn-epÅ apdnhn-t\mSv kmZriyw ]peÀ¯pó ]pcm-X\ tdma³ Ip´-§fpw e`n-¡p-I-bp-ïm-bn.

Omb Nn{Xw
Cu \ngð Nn{X-¯n\v Imc-W-amb hkvXp F´mWv? CXp imkv{X-¯n\v Ctóhsc Iïp ]nSn-¡p-hm³ k-[n-¡m¯ Hcp ka-ky-bmbn Ath-ti-jn-¡p-óp. Fw 400 ssat{Im-kvtIm¸v D]-tbm-Kn¨ \S-¯nb ]co-£-W-¯nð ]ZmÀ°-¯nsâ aqóv Ah-Ø-bmb Jc, {ZmhI, hmX-I-§Ä Hópw sImïñ Cu Nn{Xw cq]m-´-c-s¸-«-sXóv Ak-ón-Kv²-ambn sXfn-ªp.

Zn\ {]Im-i-¯nsâ hyXn-bm\ hyXym-k-§Ä-¡v A-\p-kr-X-ambn CXnsâ hÀ®-¯n\pw hyXym-k-ap-ïm-Ip-óp. s]mXpth Cfw aª \nd-sa-¦nepw t^mt«m-bnð hfsc hyà-amb Nn{X-ambn CXp cq]m-´-c-s¸-Sp-óp. asämcp {]tXy-IX Cu Nn{X-t¯mSp IqSp-Xð ASp¡pw tXmdpw Ahy-àhpw A{]-Xy-£-hp-am-Ipó {]XoXn Df-hm-Ipóp Fó-Xm-Wv.

 

Imðkyw ImÀ_-tWäv
slÀ¡p-eokv Fbvtdm kvt]kv tÌj³ {InÌtem {Km^-dmb tUm. tPmk^v tIm³_Iv 1978 ð I¨-bnse Imðkyw ImÀ_-tWäv LS-I-§Ä Xncn-¨-cn-ªp. CXp P-dp-ktew Iñ-d-bnse Np®m-¼p-I-ñp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvXp ]Tn-¨-Xnð AÛpX-Ic-amb kmZriyw Iïp.


A§s\ CXv Hómw \qäm-ïnð Pdpktew Iñ-d-I-fnð AS¡w sNbvX Hcp {IqinX ico-cs¯ s]mXnª hkv{X-am-sWóv sXfn-bn-¡-s¸-«p.

tdUntbm ImÀ_¬ sSÌv
{_n«ojv imkv{X-Ú-òm-cmb tUm. Fkv hmÀUv lmÄ, tUm. ssa¡nÄ äntäm, tUm. tdm_À«v slUvPv Fón-h-cpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯nð tdUntbm ImÀ_¬ sSÌv \S-¯n. 1988 HIvtSm-_À 13 \v ayqkn-b-¯nð \Só {]kv tIm¬^-d³knð Cu I¨ 1260 \pw 1390 \pw CS-bn-ep-Å-Xm-sWópw {]Jym-]n-¨p.

tdUntbm ImÀ_¬ sSÌv P\-§sf hnUvVn-Ifm-¡n-b-XmtWm? CsXmcp Iem krjvSnbmsW-ópÅ k`m[n-Ir-X-cpsS hmZw kXytam? ASn-bpsS ]mSp-Ifpw kq£va-§fmb tcJ-IÄ t]mepw s\K-äo-hmbn Nn{Xo-I-cn-¡p-hm³ Hcp Iem-Im-c\v km[n-¡ptam? B[p-\nI imkv{X kmt¦-XnI hnZy-IÄ apgp-h³ D]-tbm-Kn¨v ]co-£W \nco-£-W-§Ä \S-¯n-bn«pw {_-jnsâ ]mSp-Itfm, s]bnân-sâtbm asäs´-¦nepw \nd-¡q-«nsâ IWn-I-Itfm ImWp-hm³ km[n-¡p-ón-ñ. ]nsó F§-s\ C-sXm-cp I-em-kr-ãn-bm-Ipw? \q-en-g-I-fp-sS t]mepw ]IpXn `mK¯v am{Xw ]Xn-b-¯¡ coXn-bnð BÀs¡-¦nepw s]bvânwKv \S-¯p-hm³ km[n-¡ptam? CtX-s¨mñn imkv{X temI¯v henb tImem-le-§fpw hmZ -{]XnhmZ-§fpw \S-óp.

Fómð (BÀkn-än) bv¡p sXäp ]än Fó Nne djy³ imkv{X-Ú-òmÀ kaÀ°n¨p ImcWw 1532 ð Sqdn³ I¯o-{U-en-ep-ïmb Xo]n-Sp-¯-¯nð shÅn-s¸-«n-bn-en-cpóv DbÀó Dujvam-hn\v hnt[-b-am-b-Xn-\mð ImÀ_¬ IWn-IÄ \qX-\-§-fmbn ImW-s¸«p Fóv AhÀ kaÀ°n-¨p.

Iñ-d-bv¡p-Ånð tbiphnsâ icocw s]mXn-ªn-cn-¡pó I¨ InS-¡p-óXpw Iïpsh-ómWv ss__n-fnð ]d-ªn-cn-¡p-ó-Xv. B hÀjw Xsó FUntbm cmPm-hm-bn-cpó A_vKmÀ Aôm-asâ £W {]Imcw XtZhqkv Fó injy³ Cu I¨-bp-ambn FUo-km-bn-se¯n cmPm-hnsâ tcmKw t`Z-am-¡n-sbópw cmPmhpw Ipsd {]P-Ifpw {InkvXp-aXw kzoI-cn-¨p-shópw sFXn-ly-ap-ïv. cmPmÚ {]Imcw lóm³ Fó Nn{X-Im-c³ Cu \ngð Nn{Xw t\m¡n tbip-hnsâ cq]w hc¨pshómWv ]c-¼-cm-KX hnizm-kw. ]nóoSv CXv FUokm IvtfmXv Fó-dn-b-s¸«p t]móp. FUok Iog-S-¡nb apÉow `c-Wm-[n-Im-c-nbnð \nópw tdmam-\kv Fó cmPmhv Cu I¨ hosï-Sp-¯p-shóv Ncn{X tcJIfp-ïv. ]nóoSv {^m³kn-te¡pw AXn\p tijw Cä-en-bn-te¡pw amä-s¸-«-Xmbn Nn{X-Im-c-òmÀ A`n-{]m-b-s¸-Sp-óp.

F´m-bmepw B[p\nI imkv{X¯nt\m kmt¦-XnI hnZyIÄt¡m, AXym-[p-\n-I-§fmb imkv{Xo-tbm-]I-c-W-§Ät¡m Cóp t]mepw Isï-¯m³ km[n-¡m¯ Hcp \nKqV cl-ky-ambn B[p-\nI imkv{Xs¯ shñp-hn-fn¨p sImïv Cu I¨ Sqdn³ I¯o-{U-ense shÅn-s¸-«n-bnð Dd-§p-óp.

Sqdn-\nse I¨-bnð \n-óv imkv{XÚòmÀ ]p\-cmhn-jvI-cn¨ tbip-hnsâ cq]w
CtaPv A\-sse-knwKv D]-I-c-W-§Ä FIvkv tdUntbm {Km^v, AÄ{Sm hb-eäv tdUn-tb-j³ Fw. t^mt«mssat{Im kvtIm¸v XpS-§n-bh D]-tbm-Kn¨v Ìpd]v Sow \S-¯nb ]co-£-W-¯nð \ngð Nn{Xw XpWn-bpsS Hcp hi¯p am{Xta ]Xn-ªn-«p-Åp-shóp hyà-am-bn. AXv \q-en-gI-fpsS t]mepw ]IpXn `mK¯v am{Xta ]Xn-ªn-«p-Åqshópw Iïp. iàn-tbdnb {]Im-i-¯n\v hnt[-b-am-¡n-bn«p t]mepw Nn{Xw adp-h-i¯p ImWp-hm³ km[n-¨n-ñ.

\yq¢n-bmÀ_mÌv Xobdn
{_n«ojv \yq¢n-bÀ ^nkn-knÌv tUm. Inän-en-än-ensâ A`n-{]mbw tbip-hnsâ ico-c-¯nð \nóp-ïmb GtXm \yq¢o-bmÀ {]`m {]kv^p-cWw sImïmWv Cu \ngð cq]-s¸-«Xv Fóm-Wv.

cà ]cn-tim-[\
bpFkv ssat{Im _tbm-f-Pn-¡ð, {^ôv P\-änIv s{]m^-kÀ-amÀ, Cäm-en-b³ t^md³knIv hn-Z-Kv[ ÀamÀ Fón-h-cpsS kwLw ssat{Im kvs]IvtSm t^mt«m aoäÀ D]-tbm-Kn¨v \S-¯nb ]co-£-W-§-fnð cà¯nse lotam-t¥m-_n\pw Ccp¼p LS-I-§fpw sXfnªp Iïp. CXv F. _n. {Kq¸nð s]« cà-am-sWópw \nÀ®-bn-¨p.

UnF³F
]nóoSv UnF³Fbv¡v thïn-bpÅ kq£va ]co-£-W-§Ä \S-óp. Ct\mhm C³Ìnäyq«v Hm^v eoKð saUn-kn-\nse imkv{X kwLw CXnsâ \qgn-e-I-fnð \nóv UnF³F thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡p-I-bpw sNbn³ dnbm-£\v hnt[-b-am-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. t{ImtamtkmapIfpw aqóp Pn³-sksÜâpIfpw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¯p. UnF³F sSIv\ojy-òmÀ CXnð \nópw FIvkv ssh t{Imtam-tkm-ap-Ifpw aqóp Pn³-sksÜâp-Ifpw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¯p. AtXm-sSm¸w UnF³-F-bpsS 700 ASn-Øm\ LS-I-§fpw thÀXn-cn-¨p. (Hcp a\pjy Pot\m cq]m-´-c-s¸-S-W-sa-¦nð 300 tImSn ASn-Øm\ LS-I-§Ä thWw)

amen\y§Ä
I¨bnse amen-\y§-fnð \nópw C{k-tbenð hf-cpó 58 kky-§-fpsS ]qs¼m-Sn-IÄ thÀXn-cn-¨p. Cu I¨-sb \J inJm-´w FXnÀ¯n-cpó kky imkv{X-Ú-òmcpw t]mf³ A\-sse-Ìp-I-fp-ambn tUmIvSÀ Al-tdm³ tlmtJm hnä-kv, tUm. Ahn-t\m-Um-\nð Fóo bqZ imkv{XÚÀ¡v (Un¸mÀs«-saâv Hm^v t_m«Wn slÀt_ bqWnthgvkn-än) CXv Hcp Ime¯v C{k-tb-enð Dïm-bn-cpópshóv AwKoI-cn-t¡ïn hóp.

{]kn² Sqdn³ ssat{Im A\-enÌv t¥mh\n dnPn XpWn-bnse amen-\y-§Ä tiJ-cn¨p ]co£Ww \S-¯n. Imðkyw DÄs¡m-Åpó ZmXp eh-W-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn CXnð ImW-s¸-Sp-ópïv Fóp a\-Ên-em-¡n.

Readers Comments

ChnsS sImSp¡pó A`n{]mb§Ä {_n«ojv aebmfnbptSXñ. tkmjyð s\ähÀ¡v hgn NÀ¨bnð ]s¦Sp¡póhÀ AÇoetam aX \nµtbm A]IoÀ¯nIctam \nbahncp²tam Bb A`n{]mb§Ä t]mÌv sN¿póXv ssk_À \nba{]Imcw in£mÀlamWv- þ FUnäÀ

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